The national body charged with the safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage is the Directorate-General for Culture (of the Ministry of Education and Culture). Up to the end of 2011, it was the Directorate General for Cultural Values, Arts and Film (NBSF, Nilai Budaya, Seni, dan Film) of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism. Within the Directorate-General for Culture, the Directorate of Internalization of Values and Cultural Diplomacy (INDB, Internalisasi Nilai dan Diplomasi Budaya) is the implementing agency, supported by the Centre for Research and Development of Culture of the same Ministry. Sub-Directorates are responsible for various aspects of intangible cultural heritage, such as inventorying. There are also Offices for Safeguarding Cultural Values (BPNB, Balai Pelestarian Nilai Budaya) in 11 provinces of Indonesia that act as an interface with local communities.
Training in intangible cultural heritage safeguarding is provided by the Center of Development for Human Resources of Culture. There is also formal training in artistic and cultural performances at Institut Seni Indonesia (ISI; Indonesian Art Institute) and its three affiliates (ISI Denpasar in Bali, ISI Surakarta in Central Java, ISI Padang Panjang in West Sumatra), the Indonesian Academy of Art and three Vocational High Schools.
The INDB Directorate is responsible for collecting and holding documentation on intangible cultural heritage and research results, which are compiled on the Indonesian intangible cultural heritage database. There is also an Internet portal that allows communities to upload information on their intangible cultural heritage. The Centre for Research and Development of Culture has also conducted research related to intangible cultural heritage elements in areas not directly related to preparing nomination files. This research and its documentation (photos, film and interviews) is then used for public education and the promotion of intangible cultural heritage.
Indonesia has established a national inventory called the Registrasi Warisan Budaya Takbenda Nasional (Register of National Intangible Cultural Heritage), which is administered by the INDB Directorate with the support, at the local level, of the 11 BPNB offices. The inventory format was drawn up in 2009 by the Centre for Research and Development of Culture (Pusat Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kebudayaan) and the NBSF Directorate-General at the time, in collaboration with UNESCO’s Jakarta Office. It was published in the form of a bilingual manual (English and Indonesian). The BPNB offices have been active in collecting data for this inventory. The approach consists of collecting data from the community and filling in the forms, both electronically and in hard copy.
The criteria for inclusion are that: (i) the heritage corresponds to the definition of Article 2 of the Convention; (ii) it responds to all 17 fields of the database; (iii) it is in conformity with Indonesia’s laws, including on human rights; and (iv) community consent is given. If the element contains sensitive information, access to the data will be restricted. The inventory form has fields corresponding to the current status of the element (developed, maintained, fading out, threatened, extinct), the safeguarding plan(s) for the element and safeguarding actions proposed by the community. The data are updated every two years and the 11 BPNB offices are responsible for checking the existing and new data in consultation with the community. Safeguarding suggestions are also recorded and the community is regarded as a primary source both of information on the element and proposals for its development. Non-governmental organizations related to the element are recorded in the inventory entries and some also maintain their own inventories; they may also be involved in sharing metadata with the Ministry.
Indonesia undertakes various actions to promote intangible cultural heritage through exhibitions, festivals and similar events such as the Batik Summit (2011), the Wayang Summit (2012, with puppetry performances from Indonesia and nine other countries), the Saman Summit (2012) and the International Ramayana Festival in 2013 with 600 performers of Ramayana arts from nine countries.
Education about intangible cultural heritage is of particular importance in Indonesia. Intangible cultural heritage-related content has been integrated into the school curriculum as local or extra-curricular content at all levels (up to high school). For example, the Batik technique is taught in Pekalongan Vocational School and textile art is taught in the local junior school. The programme entitled ‘Education and training in Indonesian Batik intangible cultural heritage, in collaboration with the Batik Museum in Pekalongan’ was recognized by the Committee as a Best Practice in 2009. At the higher education level, Kris is taught in the Institute of Arts Surakarta, Gajah Mada University offers a course in the Philosophy of Puppetry and Angklung is taught at the Indonesian Academy of Arts.
Educational and training programmes have also been provided in relation to specific intangible cultural heritage elements (both inscribed and not inscribed). These include seminars, symposia and workshops for community members given by masters, experts and community members. For example, a one-week workshop in puppetry was given in 2013 by Seenga Wagi and regular workshops were held by the Angklung Society. The National Kris Secretariat has conducted regular symposia and workshops for community members with governmental support. As a form of education in the community as well as a promotional activity, the Wayang Museum in Jakarta contains a comprehensive display of wayang puppetry, from how the puppets are made to how to perform with them. The primary means of non-formal transmission of intangible cultural heritage is through traditional intangible cultural heritage schools (sanggar) and associations of enthusiasts for particular elements. Moreover, even if this is then transposed to the formal educational setting, the traditional transmission methods remain the same, as in the case of a batik master giving classes in a school.
As far as bilateral, sub-regional, regional and international cooperation is concerned, in 2012, Indonesia hosted a sub-regional workshop on intangible cultural heritage in cooperation with ICHCAP (a category 2 centre in Republic of Korea) and participants from 11 South-East Asian countries. Indonesia held the World Culture Forum on The Power of Culture in Development in November 2013 with 391 overseas participants, 71 of whom made presentations. In 2006, Sena Wangi set up the Asian Puppetry Association for safeguarding and developing puppetry in ten ASEAN countries. It has also been instrumental in establishing the Indonesian National Centre of UNIMA.
Indonesia has four elements on the Representative List that are subject to reporting here: Wayang puppet theatre (incorporated in 2008 after being proclaimed a Masterpiece of the Oral and Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity in 2003); Indonesian Kris (also incorporated in 2008, having been proclaimed a Masterpiece in 2005); Indonesian Batik (2009); and Indonesian Angklung (2010). Inscription and the associated publicity have not only enhanced awareness of the elements themselves but also of intangible cultural heritage generally, while offering support to diverse communities that practise different styles of these elements (e.g. Batik and Kris).
The efforts made since inscription to promote and/or reinforce the elements have some common aspects. This is particularly true in the area of formal and non-formal teaching or transmission where the elements have been introduced into school curricula (as local content and extra-curricular studies) with teaching being provided by exponents using traditional methods. For the Angklung, training is provided on the techniques for making the bamboo-based instrument and the Forestry Service endeavours to increase the availability of black bamboo for making the instrument. Community associations and similar civil society organizations play a central role in the institutional context for such efforts, and were actively involved in the elaboration of the present reports on the inscribed elements.