La lengua, la danza y la música de los garifunas

   

Inscrito en 2008 (3.COM) en la Lista Representativa del Patrimonio Cultural Inmaterial de la Humanidad (proclamado originalmente en 2001)

Las garifunas proceden del mestizaje de varios grupos originarios de África y del Caribe, cuyos elementos culturales integraron. En el siglo XVIII, se establecieron en la costa atlántica de América Central tras verse obligados a huir de la isla de San Vicente. Hoy día, estas comunidades viven en, Honduras, Guatemala, Nicaragua y Belice.

La lengua garifuna pertenece a la familia de lenguas arawak y ha sobrevivido a siglos de persecución y dominación lingüística. Poseen una gran riqueza de úragas, relatos que se narraban durante las veladas o las grandes reuniones. Las melodías reúnen elementos africanos y amerindios y los textos constituyen una verdadera reserva de la historia y el saber tradicional de los garifunas sobre el cultivo del manioc, la pesca, la fabricación de canoas y la construcción de casas de barro cocido. Hay también un fuerte componente satírico en las canciones que se cantan al ritmo de los tambores y se acompañan de bailes en los que participan los espectadores.

Estas tradiciones siguen siendo esenciales en la vida de los garifunas. Los encargados de perpetuar las ceremonias, fiestas y tradiciones orales son los ancianos. Pero la transmisión se ve en peligro a causa de las migraciones económicas, la discriminación y la ausencia de la lengua garifuna en el sistema escolar. Esta, aunque es aún hablada por numerosas personas, ya sólo se enseña en un pueblo.

Informe periódico

Periodic Report (USL)

A. Cover sheet

A.1.

State Party

Name of State Party

Portugal

A.2.

Date of deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession

This information is available online.

2008-05-21

A.3.

Element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List that is the subject of this report

Name of element

Bisalhães black pottery manufacturing process

Inscribed in

2016

Submitting State(s)

Portugal

A.4.

Reporting period covered by this report

Please indicate the period covered by this report.

2016 - 2020

A.5.

Other elements inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, if any

Please list all other elements from your country inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, together with the year of inscription; for multinational elements, please indicate the other States concerned.

Manufacture of cowbells (2015)

A.6.

Executive summary of the report

Please provide an executive summary of the report that will allow general readers to understand the current status of the element, any positive or negative impacts of inscription, the implementation of safeguarding measures during the reporting period and their possible update for the following years.

The Bisalhães black pottery manufacturing process is at a very delicate stage. In fact, in spite of the positive impact of the inscription at the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding, the most important problem identified was devastating: in the last years the wife of a potter died – D. Adorinda Martins Sigre – as well as the potter Sezisnando Ramalho, this November. Beside, Potters Manuel Martins and Cesário Martins, have serious health problems and almost stopped working – their production decreased substantially. One of the women (Maria de Fátima da Cunha Macário) that participated actively in the manufacturing process, accompanying the potter Jorge Ramalho, left the village.
On the positive side, lots of activities included in the safeguarding plan were accomplished. An application to European Union funding was approved, and it will allow to implement the most part of the safeguarding plan measures – and others – in the next years.
The inscription at the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding had a huge impact on the visibility of this artwork and its practitioners. Social media granted good coverage of the tradition and its bearers, and the village was visited by national politic personalities, during national events that took place in Vila Real or nearby. On the negative side, some confusion was made (even among the potters) regarding the funding of the activities preconized in the safeguarding plan. Some people thought that the inscription at the UNESCO list granted some kind of funds to the City Council, therefore misunderstanding its role as main funder of the plan itself.
Finally, it must be highlighted that the two younger potters maintain their activity, as well as the growing interest shown by the community (even if sometimes not understanding the Municipality work and intentions), and the surging of other young designers/practitioners interested in knowing and developing the Bisalhães black pottery tradition.
The implementation of safeguarding measures during the reporting period wasn’t as easy as one could think. The international economic crisis, and its local consequences, forced the City Council to review its priorities, mostly due to the social impact in the community. Nevertheless, The City Council made an effort to find financial EU aid, and successfully applied to a Program for EU funding, that was meant to be implemented this year. But the Covid-19 pandemic forced the suspension of most of the planned activities, that are supposed to take place in the near future.

A.7.

Contact person for correspondence

Provide the name, address and other contact information of the person responsible for correspondence concerning the report.

Title (Ms/Mr, etc.)

Mrs.

Family name

Almeida

Given name

Eugénia Margarida Coutinho da Silva

Institution/position

City Councilor for Culture, Vila Real City Council

Address

Avenida Carvalho Araújo
5000-657 Vila Real

Telephone number

(+351) 259 308 100

E-mail address

eugeniaalmeida@cm-vilareal.pt

Other relevant information

The technician responsible for submitting this report is Mrs. Gina Telmo, Director of the Municipal Museums of Vila Real City Council.

E-mail address - ginatelmo@cm-vilareal.pt

B. Status of element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List

Refer to the nomination file or to previous reports, if any, as the basis for reporting on the current status of the element, and report only on relevant changes since the date of inscription on the List or since the previous report. Nomination files, specific timetables and earlier reports, if any, are available at https://ich.unesco.org or from the Secretariat, upon request.

The State Party shall pay special attention to the role of gender and shall endeavour to ensure the widest possible participation of the communities, groups and, where applicable, individuals concerned as well as relevant non-governmental organizations during the process of preparing this report, and is asked to describe how it has done so in point D below.

B.1.

Social and cultural functions

Please explain the social and cultural functions and meanings of the element today, within and for its community, the characteristics of the bearers and practitioners, and any specific roles or categories of persons with special responsibilities towards the element, among others. Attention should be given to any relevant changes related to inscription criterion U.1 (‘the element constitutes intangible cultural heritage as defined in Article 2 of the Convention’).

Being a potter became a more respected job in Bisalhães and in Vila Real. The potters themselves feel recognized by their community and by the more and more visitors that come to Vila Real, and they are proud identifying themselves as artisans. The biggest problem is the age of most of the potters. Four of them have 80 or more years, and the younger ones are in the forties and fifties. The practice continues to be seen not as a job, but as a hobby, or as a complement to their monthly wages or retirement funds. The personal relationship remains difficult with some of the potters (and between them as well). The women’s roll in the manufacturing process maintains its importance, currently less focused on the hardest part of the clay transformation, and more at the decoration and the kiln preparation.
The intergenerational transmission of know-how, as in many other pottery centres in Portugal, is customarily accomplished almost exclusively within each family. Kinship relations are also important along all the operational chain, which involves collaboration with other members of the potter's family, usually following a division of tasks by gender and generation. However, this gender/age-based division of labour has gradually become blurred, and men now execute tasks that were traditionally performed by women and children, such as the hard work of clay preparation.

B.2.

Assessment of its viability and current risks

Please describe the current level of viability of the element, particularly the frequency and extent of its practice, the strength of traditional modes of transmission, the demographics of practitioners and audiences and its sustainability. Please also identify and describe the threats, if any, to the element's continued transmission and enactment and describe the severity and immediacy of such threats, giving particular attention to any strengthening or weakening of the element’s viability subsequent to inscription.

The manufacturing process still active in Bisalhães. Querubim Rocha continues to work in his office in Bisalhães, and the same does “the sculptor” Albano Carvalho. Querubim even cleaned up his office, once he felt the crescent look for the potters and their pottery in the village itself. Jorge Ramalho continues to work in a regular basis, and increased his production. The younger potter, Miguel Fontes, also increased his production, as well as his pedagogical performance, in a partnership with the City Council. However, the potter Sezisnando Ramalho passed away, as well as D. Adorinda Sigre, wife of Cesário Martins. He almost stopped working, as his brother Manuel Martins did, since both have serious health problems – their productions substantially decreased.
Some of the younger generations in the potters’ families start to show some interest in learning their relatives’ skills and know-how.
As threats, we can identify the difficulty that the potters from Bisalhães have in accepting new practitioners that don’t come from the village or their families. Even if they organize some workshops (as Jorge Ramalho does), the tradition is kept inside the village. The modernization of some of the processes isn’t well seen by the potters. The electrification of the potters’ wheel isn’t a practice, and the transformation of the clay continues a hard work that some mechanization could ease, but it’s seen as contrary to the ancestral practice and to the inscription in the UNESCO List.
The access to the clay itself is more difficult, nowadays, as the tile factories where the potters went to get it are now closed.
The potters are also afraid of the growing of objects that can be mistaken as Bisalhães pottery, and they don’t usually like to produce new design pieces, if they don’t create them themselves.

B.3.

Implementation of safeguarding measures

Please report on the safeguarding measures described in the nomination file, and previous report, if any. Describe how they have been implemented and how they have substantially contributed to the safeguarding of the element during the reporting period, taking note of external or internal constraints such as limited resources. Include, in particular, information on the measures taken to ensure the viability of the element by enabling the community to continue to practise and transmit it. Include the following detailed information concerning the implementation of the set of safeguarding measures or safeguarding plan:

B.3.a. Objectives and results

Indicate what primary objective(s) were addressed and what concrete results were attained during the reporting period.

The safeguarding plan proposed aimed essentially at preventing the disappearance of the knowledge associated with the manufacture of Bisalhães black pottery.
Raising-awareness among younger generations regarding this tradition was also a main objective, as well as creating conditions to improve the economic sustainability of this traditional craft.
Another key objective involves the improvement of the working conditions for the existing potters.
The safeguarding plan is also aimed at strengthening the profitability of this craft, in particular by enhancing awareness of Bisalhães black pottery, regionally, nationally and internationally.
The last four years have been very important for Bisalhães black pottery. Even if some of the activities didn’t took place, there was an investment in the divulgation of the potters and of the pottery. On the other side, Bisalhães black pottery was the theme of many urban art interventions, as well as the subject for studies, academic works and several scientific publications and communications in heritage and handcraft events. Radio and TV shows took place, inviting regional, national and international public to know and visit Vila Real and Bisalhães. The pottery was also included in important tourism routes, such as the National Road N 2, and visits to Bisalhães almost triplicated. The potters’ sale and working points suffered interventions, i.e. new painting and pre-installation of electricity.
After the inscription, and thanks to the new visibility of the element, the demand or pottery increased, the local restaurants invested in presentation with Bisalhães pottery and the majority of regional institutions started to choose Bisalhães pottery trophies, to offer in their activities, following the example of the Vila Real City Council.

B.3.b. Safeguarding activities

List the key activities that were carried out during this reporting period in order to achieve these expected results. Please describe the activities in detail and note their effectiveness or any problems encountered in implementing them.

The implementation of the safeguarding plan didn’t occur quite as planned initially. In the beginning of 2018 the technician responsible for the Inscription file (and the safeguarding plan) left the City Hall, and the transition to the actual person took some time. The international economic crisis, and its local consequences, forced the City Council to review its priorities, mostly due to the social impact in the community.
Nevertheless, the City Council made an effort to find financial EU aid, and successfully applied to a Program, that was meant to be implemented this year. But the Covid-19 pandemic forced us to stop most of the planned activities that are supposed to take place in 2021 and 2022.
Key activities:
Requalification of the potters’ sale and working places in Vila Real. It was a request of the potters, but after the intervention none of them finished the required installation of the electric panel.
Support to the potters’ participation at “Feira dos Pucarinhos”, building the individual stands and creating information supports. Unfortunately, only two of the potters participate actively, Miguel Fontes and Albano Machado. Trying to diversify the animation and attract different publics, the City Council created the concept “Black Night”, an event that proposes gatherings, dinner and amusement with the focus on the black pottery. The Covid-19 pandemic prevented its concretization, this year.
The Vila Real Museums maintained their prolific activity concerning the Bisalhães pottery, with dozens of workshops (“small potters”) realized, at the Museums or at schools of all the Municipality.
The Municipal Theatre, in partnership with the Bragança Theatre, created an original show, “Clay – wet soil where the boot slips”, with the participation of the community of Vila Real.
The Bisalhães pottery is highlighted in all the National and International Cultural and Tourism Fairs where the City Council participates, such as BTL (Lisbon) and Xantar (Ourense, Spain).
First Edition of the National Encounter on Bisalhães Black Pottery, in the Vila Real Theatre, with the participation of all the community, including some of the potters, that were included in a discussion panel.
In association with the CTT (National Post Office), a series of stamps was created, allusive to the Bisalhães black pottery.
Since 2016, every edition of the “Pitoresco – Street Art and Graffiti Festival” had interventions allusive to Black pottery: a big mural, representing one of the potters; several workshops with young kids, painting previously bought pottery; electrical boxes in public spaces, crossing black pottery with famous artworks (Magritte, for example); exhibitions in different spaces along the city; postcards and photography publication.
Tribute to the Bisalhães potters in a new roundabout in Vila Real, with the creation of a big sculpture representing a traditional jug. Almost all of the potters were there for the opening event.
Bisalhães black pottery was the theme to several communications in national events, in Oporto, Guimarães, Tomar, Vila Real, Macedo de Cavaleiros and Santo Tirso, some of them with the participation of Miguel Fontes, Bisalhães’ potter, with demonstration of his work and report on his knowledge and activity.
Presence in national and international media, in more than 40 TV shows, radio programs and publications (egg. “MorningCalm”, from South Corean Flight Company, or “Know-how of Bisalhães potters is ICH”, Encounter resumes, ed. NEGEP/UNIRIO/CITCEM; Rio de Janeiro).

B.3.c. Participation of communities, groups or individuals in the safeguarding activities

Describe how communities, groups or, if appropriate, individuals as well as relevant non-governmental organizations have effectively participated, including in terms of gender roles, in the safeguarding measures. Describe the role of the implementing organization or body (name, background, etc.) and the human resources that were available for implementing safeguarding activities.

Almost all of the activities were implemented by the Vila Real City Council. The municipal cultural and technical departments had a major leading part, such as the Vila Velha Museum, the Archaeologic and Numismatic Museum, the Public Library, the Municipal Literary Guild and the Municipal Theatre. More than 50 technics were involved in all the processes.
The Local Parishes of Vila Real and Mondrões (that involves Bisalhães village) were also an active part in the implementation of some of the activities.
Cultural local organizations, such as “Covilhete Brotherhood” (“covilhete” is a veal pie, typical from Vila Real, that was originally made in a Bisalhães small pan, called “covilhete”), are City Council’s partners in promoting black pottery and its traditional uses, mostly in culinary.
National Companies, as EDP – Portuguese Energy Company or CTT – Portuguese Post Office participated in the implementation of two important measures, the requalification of the potters’ sale and work points and the national and international divulgation of Bisalhães pottery through stamps.
The organizers of cultural events and the regional and national Artists, by being sensible to the theme and integrating it in their works, for example in the “Pitoresco” Murals, in exhibitions at the Museums and in photography.
Finally, but the most important, the potters and their families, by transmitting their knowledge to their youngers and by participating in Encounters, TV shows and Workshops.

B.3.d. Timetable

Indicate in a timetable when each activity was implemented.

2016-2020 - Requalification of the potters’ sale and working places in Vila Real.
2016-2019 – Support to the potters’ participation at “Feira dos Pucarinhos”. In 2020, because of the pandemic state, it took place in the Archaeologic Museum.
2017-2019 – “Black Night”, an event that proposes gatherings, dinner and amusement with the focus on the black pottery. The Covid-19 pandemic prevented its concretization, tin 2020.
2016-2020 – The Vila Real Museums maintained their prolific activity concerning the Bisalhães pottery, with dozens of workshops (“small potters”) realized, at the Museums or at schools of all the Municipality.
2017 – Original show, “Clay – wet soil where the boot slips”, with the participation of the community of Vila Real.
2016-2020 – The Bisalhães pottery is highlighted in all the National and International Cultural and Tourism Fairs where the City Council participates, such as BTL (Lisbon) and Xantar (Ourense, Spain).
2018.11.29 – First Edition of the National Encounter on Bisalhães Black Pottery, in the Vila Real Theatre.
2018 – In association with the CTT (National Post Office), a series of stamps was created, allusive to the Bisalhães black pottery.
2016-2020 – Every edition of the “Pitoresco – Street Art and Graffiti Festival” had interventions allusive to Black pottery.
2015.05.01 – Tribute to the Bisalhães potters in a new roundabout in Vila Real, followed by the registration in the National Inventory and the announcement of the application to UNESCO.
2017-2019 – Bisalhães black pottery was the theme to several communications in national events.
2016-2020 – Presence in national and international media, in more than 40 TV shows, radio programs and publications.
2016-2020 – Publications, promotional flyers from Bisalhães black pottery.
2019 – Exhibition “Caruma - A look at Bisalhães”, organized by the Vila Velha Museum, under the supervision of Vila Real City Council.
2017-2020 – Acquisition of black pottery by the Vila Real City Council for its collection and for institutional offers.
2016-2017 – Bridge construction between Almodena and Vila Marim, one of the main routes to reach Bisalhães and Mondrões.
2016-2020 – Support the “Covilhete Brotherhood”.
2020 - Bituminous paving of Bisalhães main street (work already assigned, to be done in early 2021).

B.3.e. Budget expenditures

Provide the detailed amounts of the funds used for the implementation of each activity (if possible, in US dollars), identifying the funding source for each (governmental sources, in-kind community inputs, etc.).

2016-2020 - Requalification of the potters’ sale and working places in Vila Real. 7096,35€
2016-2019 – Support to the potters’ participation at “Feira dos Pucarinhos”. In 2020, because of the pandemic state, it took place in the Archaeologic Museum.1500€
2017-2019 – “Black Night”, an event that proposes gatherings, dinner and amusement with the focus on the black pottery. The Covid-19 pandemic prevented its concretization, tin 2020. 41.772,5€
2016-2020 – The Vila Real Museums maintained their prolific activity concerning the Bisalhães pottery, with dozens of workshops (“small potters”) realized, at the Museums or at schools of all the Municipality.1730€
2017 – Original show, “Clay – wet soil where the boot slips”, with the participation of the community of Vila Real. 6.860,81€
2016-2020 – The Bisalhães pottery is highlighted in all the National and International Cultural and Tourism Fairs where the City Council participates, such as BTL (Lisbon) and Xantar (Ourense, Spain).4500€
2018.11.29 – First Edition of the National Encounter on Bisalhães Black Pottery, in the Vila Real Theatre. 2035,11€
2018 – In association with the CTT (National Post Office), a series of stamps was created, allusive to the Bisalhães black pottery. 50€
2016-2020 – every edition of the “Pitoresco – Street Art and Graffiti Festival” had interventions allusive to Black pottery. 2500€
2015.05.01 – Tribute to the Bisalhães potters in a new roundabout in Vila Real, followed by the registration in the National Inventory and the announcement of the application to UNESCO. 19.464,85€
2017-2019 – Bisalhães black pottery was the theme to several communications in national events. 500€
2016-2020 – Presence in national and international media, in more than 40 TV shows, radio programs and publications.1889€
2016-2020 – Publications, promotional flyers from Bisalhães black pottery. 2975€
2019 – Exhibition “Caruma - A look at Bisalhães”, organized by the Vila Velha Museum, under the supervision of Vila Real City Council. 2794€
2017-2020 – Acquisition of black pottery by the Vila Real City Council for its collection and for institutional offers. 8.867,18€
2016-2017 – Bridge construction between Almodena and Vila Marim, one of the main routes to reach Bisalhães and Mondrões. 155 000€
2016-2020 – Support the “Covilhete Brotherhood”. 2500€
2020 - Bituminous paving of Bisalhães main street (work already assigned, to be done in early 2021). 45 824,28€.

B.3.f. Overall effectiveness of the safeguarding activities

Provide an overall assessment of the effectiveness of the activities undertaken to achieve the expected results and of the efficiency of the use of funds for implementing the activities. Please indicate how the activities contributed to achieving the results and whether other activities could have contributed better to achieving the same results. Also indicate whether the same results could have been achieved with less funding, whether the human resources available were appropriate and whether communities, groups and individuals could have been better involved.

The last four years have been very important for Bisalhães black pottery. Even if some of the activities considered in the safeguarding plan didn’t took place, there was an investment in the divulgation of the potters and of the pottery. On the other side, Bisalhães black pottery was the theme to a big number of urban art interventions, as well as subject for studies, academic works and several scientific publications and communications in heritage and handcraft events. Radio and TV shows took place, inviting regional, national and international public to know and visit Vila Real and Bisalhães. The pottery was also included in important tourism routes, such as the National Road N 2, and visits to Bisalhães almost triplicated. The potters’ sale and working points suffered interventions, i.e. new painting and pre-installation of electricity – though the potters didn’t yet terminated the process.
After the inscription, and thanks to the new visibility of the element, the demand of pottery increased, the local restaurants invested in presentation with Bisalhães pottery and the majority of regional institutions started to choose Bisalhães pottery trophies, to offer in their activities, following the example of the City Council.
The safeguarding plan preconized activities in four main areas: Support to practitioners, Training and Education, Economic value and Heritage and Scientific Enhancement. In the first area, the measures weren’t quite effective, as already shown. As for Training and Education: the firs contacts with the Institutions identified was very positive, but the world economic and social context didn’t help to the implementation of the activities proposed, such as the professional training courses for new craftsmen or the inclusion of Bisalhães black pottery in the arts and crafts promotion programmes currently in place. We hope that it can occur in the following years.
Nevertheless, the dissemination and public awareness-raising in the community, particularly among the younger generations in Bisalhães and Vila Real, and the organisation and implementation of training courses and educational activities related to black pottery in municipal museums was a success.
As to the economic value, some of the activities will be implemented in 2021 and 2020, mainly the ones that comprehend physical intervention in Bisalhães and in Vila Real. The Certification of Bisalhães black pottery under the "Arts and Crafts Promotion Programme" and to be used in cooking, must go on in the near future.
Some of the Heritage and Scientific Enhancement area activities took place but were penalized by the economic crisis and by the pandemic state.

C. Update of the safeguarding measures

C.1.

Updated safeguarding plan

Please provide an update of the safeguarding plan included in the nomination file or in the previous report. In particular provide detailed information as follows:

  1. a. What primary objective(s) will be addressed and what concrete results will be expected?
  2. b. What are the key activities to be carried out in order to achieve these expected results? Describe the activities in detail and in their best sequence, addressing their feasibility.
  3. c. How will the State(s) Party(ies) concerned support the implementation of the updated safeguarding plan?

The Vila Real City Council maintains the primary objectives that were established four years ago:
-Preventing the disappearance of the knowledge associated with the manufacture of Bisalhães black pottery;
-Raising-awareness among younger generations regarding this tradition;
-Creating conditions to improve the economic sustainability of this traditional craft;
-Improvement of the working conditions for the existing potters;
-Strengthening the profitability of this craft.
In order to do so, we will execute the Program that was presented and validated to EU financial funding, in a total of approximately 143.000€. Other activities, that are considered important but are not included in that Program, are supposed to encumber the City Council Budget in circa 100.000€.
Key activities:
a) Support to potters in obtaining and transporting the clay from its origin to their workplace;
b) Maintenance of the support given to potters' travel and participation in "Feira dos Pucarinhos" and in other fairs and exhibitions;
c) Professional Training Courses for new craftsmen to be implemented with the collaboration of current practitioners and in partnership with local entities, such as NERVIR (the Vila Real Regional Business Association) and UTAD (University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro);
d) Establishment of a protocol with IEFP - Institute of Employment and Vocational Training to include Bisalhães black pottery in the arts and crafts promotion programmes;
e) Dissemination and public awareness-raising in the community, particularly among the younger generations in Bisalhães and Vila Real;
f) Organisation and implementation of training courses and educational activities related to black pottery in municipal museums;
g) Organisation of activities for children in the city's cultural facilities;
h) Publication and re-printing of editions for young people about Bisalhães black pottery and its associated traditions;
i) Improvement and redesigning of the existing visiting itinerary in the village of Bisalhães, to include all potters’ working places, kilns and shops;
j) Revision of the signage related to the structures in the village of Bisalhães associated with the manufacture of black earthenware;
k) Renovation of the existing signage in the city of Vila Real to better direct visitors to potters’ working shops/stalls and indicate the way to the village of Bisalhães;
l) Certification of Bisalhães black pottery under the "Arts and Crafts Promotion Programme";
m) Certification of Bisalhães black pottery to be used in cooking;
n) Strengthening the promotion of Bisalhães black pottery in Vila Real Tourism Office, by enhancing the information available;
o) Undertaking new temporary and touring exhibitions, and pursuing a plan to publish information about them;
p) Edition and reedition of cultural, ethnographic and tourism publications related to Bisalhães black pottery, aimed at different age levels, with a particular focus on young people and children;
q) Creation of a video and exhibition concerning specifically women’s work and its importance in the manufacturing process;
r) Redesign, update and translation into different languages the existing website about Bisalhães black pottery (http://www.nervir.pt/bisalhaes/) to include updated information about potters and their work and reinforce the site's scientific content, in collaboration with the NERVIR Business Association.

C.2.

Timetable for future actitivies

Provide a timetable for the updated safeguarding plan (within a time-frame of approximately four years).

a) Support to potters in obtaining and transporting the clay from its origin to their workplace – 2021-2024;
b) Maintenance of the support given to potters' travel and participation in "Feira dos Pucarinhos" and in other fairs and exhibitions – 2021-2024;
c) Professional Training Courses for new craftsmen to be implemented with the collaboration of current practitioners and in partnership with local entities, such as NERVIR (the Vila Real Regional Business Association) and UTAD (University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro) – 2023;
d) Establishment of a protocol with IEFP - Institute of Employment and Vocational Training to include Bisalhães black pottery in the arts and crafts promotion programmes – 2023;
e) Dissemination and public awareness-raising in the community, particularly among the younger generations in Bisalhães and Vila Real – 2021-2024;
f) Organisation and implementation of training courses and educational activities related to black pottery in municipal museums – 2021-2024;
g) Organisation of activities for children in the city's cultural facilities – 2021-2024;
h) Publication and re-printing of editions for young people about Bisalhães black pottery and its associated traditions – 2021-2022;
i) Improvement and redesigning of the existing visiting itinerary in the village of Bisalhães, to include all potters’ working places, kilns and shops – 2021;
j) Revision of the signage related to the structures in the village of Bisalhães associated with the manufacture of black earthenware – 2021-2024;
k) Renovation of the existing signage in the city of Vila Real to better direct visitors to potters’ working shops/stalls and indicate the way to the village of Bisalhães – 2021;
l) Certification of Bisalhães black pottery under the "Arts and Crafts Promotion Programme" – 2021;
m) Certification of Bisalhães black pottery to be used in cooking – 2021;
n) Strengthening the promotion of Bisalhães black pottery in Vila Real Tourism Office, by enhancing the information available – 2021-2024;
o) Undertaking new temporary and touring exhibitions, and pursuing a plan to publish information about them – 2021-2022;
p) Edition and reedition of cultural, ethnographic and tourism publications related to Bisalhães black pottery, aimed at different age levels, with a particular focus on young people and children – 2021-2024;
q) Creation of a video and exhibition concerning specifically women’s work and its importance in the manufacturing process – 2021;
r) Redesign, update and translation into different languages the existing website about Bisalhães black pottery (http://www.nervir.pt/bisalhaes/) to include updated information about potters and their work and reinforce the site's scientific content, in collaboration with the NERVIR Business Association – 2021-2024.

C.3.

Budget for future activities

Provide the estimates of the funds required for implementing the updated safeguarding plan (if possible, in US dollars), identifying any available resources (governmental sources, in-kind community inputs, etc.).

In order to implement the present safeguarding plan, the City Council will execute the Program that was presented and validated to EU financial funding, in a total of approximately 143.000€ (EUF). Other activities, that are considered important but are not included in that Program, are supposed to encumber the City Council Budget in circa 100.000€ (VRB). The funds EUF and VRB will be distributed according to the following activities:
a) Support to potters in obtaining and transporting the clay from its origin to their workplace – Vila Real City Council Activity Plan and Budget (VRB)
b) Maintenance of the support given to potters' travel and participation in "Feira dos Pucarinhos" and in other fairs and exhibitions – (VRB)
c) Professional Training Courses for new craftsmen to be implemented with the collaboration of current practitioners and in partnership with local entities, such as NERVIR (the Vila Real Regional Business Association) and UTAD (University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro) – included in the Program presented to EU financial funding (EUF)
d) Establishment of a protocol with IEFP - Institute of Employment and Vocational Training to include Bisalhães black pottery in the arts and crafts promotion programmes – (EUF)
e) Dissemination and public awareness-raising in the community, particularly among the younger generations in Bisalhães and Vila Real – (EUF)
f) Organisation and implementation of training courses and educational activities related to black pottery in municipal museums – (EUF)
g) Organisation of activities for children in the city's cultural facilities – (EUF)
h) Publication and re-printing of editions for young people about Bisalhães black pottery and its associated traditions – (EUF)
i) Improvement and redesigning of the existing visiting itinerary in the village of Bisalhães, to include all potters’ working places, kilns and shops – (EUF)
j) Revision of the signage related to the structures in the village of Bisalhães associated with the manufacture of black earthenware – (EUF)
k) Renovation of the existing signage in the city of Vila Real to better direct visitors to potters’ working shops/stalls and indicate the way to the village of Bisalhães – (EUF)
l) Certification of Bisalhães black pottery under the "Arts and Crafts Promotion Programme" – (EUF)
m) Certification of Bisalhães black pottery to be used in cooking – (EUF)
n) Strengthening the promotion of Bisalhães black pottery in Vila Real Tourism Office, by enhancing the information available – (VRB)
o) Undertaking new temporary and touring exhibitions, and pursuing a plan to publish information about them – (EUF)
p) Edition and reedition of cultural, ethnographic and tourism publications related to Bisalhães black pottery, aimed at different age levels, with a particular focus on young people and children – (EUF)
q) Creation of a video and exhibition concerning specifically women’s work and its importance in the manufacturing process–(EUF)
r) Redesign, update and translation into different languages the existing website about Bisalhães black pottery (http://www.nervir.pt/bisalhaes/) to include updated information about potters and their work and reinforce the site's scientific content, in collaboration with the NERVIR Business Association–(VRB)

C.4.

Community participation

Please describe how communities, groups and individuals, as well as relevant non-governmental organizations have been involved, including in terms of gender roles, in updating the safeguarding plan, and how they will be involved in its implementation.

As a result of the concern expressed by the potters and several local institutions about the possible disappearance of this traditional sort of pottery, Vila Real City Council considered that Bisalhães Black Pottery Manufacturing Process would be best safeguarded if recognized both nationally and internationally. Accordingly, it maintained contacts with practitioners and other relevant stakeholders to participate in the implementation of the current safeguarding plan.
Vila Real City Council has also promoted the development of partnerships with several local and regional entities that have made efforts in recent years to preserve Bisalhães pottery. Mondrões and Vila Real Parish Councils, for example, will play active roles in the implementation of several activities among the community and their territory.
NERVIR Association will also be actively involved, thus contributing to the redefinition of the initiatives to be implemented, such as the organisation of new training courses. It has also agreed to reedit existing publications on black pottery, and will redesign Bisalhães pottery website created in 2000.
The University UTAD will become a key partner in safeguarding the tradition. In addition to seeking greater proximity between the potters' activity and the scientific community in the fields of heritage and anthropology, the common goal is to promote further research and the development of projects in several of the courses taught at universities.

C.5.

Institutional context

Please report on the institutional context for the local management and safeguarding of the element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, including:

  1. a. the competent body(ies) involved in its management and/or safeguarding;
  2. b. the organization(s) of the community or group concerned with the element and its safeguarding.

Safeguarding the Bisalhães black pottery manufacturing process is mainly responsibility of the potters themselves. Although they don’t have an association that represent them, the Vila Real City Council is making an effort on documenting all de process stages, and on creating links between the local community and the craftsmen. The Vila Real City Council tries to connect all the interested parties mainly through the Culture City Council, and technically through the Municipal Museums team, especially its director, Dr. Gina Telmo.

D. Participation of communities in preparing this report

Describe the measures taken to ensure the widest possible participation of the communities, groups and, where applicable, individuals concerned as well as relevant non-governmental organizations during the process of preparing this report.

For the execution of this report, we took into account the actions/opinions of the various entities that during these four years had a proactive role in the promotion, tourism development and safeguarding of Bisalhães black pottery, because only in this way, it was possible to compile such a high number of activities carried out: various services in Vila Real City Council (Museums, Cultural Services, Infrastructure Division, Municipal Theater, Municipal Library, Literary Guild, Tourism, Education), Mondrões and Vila Real Parish Council, NERVIR, Schools in the Municipality of Vila Real, Turismo de Portugal.
We also took into account the various independent studies and thesies carried out on this theme, which point out strategies so that this ancestral art is not lost and, on the contrary, that it is reinvented and perpetuated over time.
The community of Vila Real and, in particular, Bisalhães (with natural collaboration and commitment of potters and their families), was also considered in terms of their future expectations, desires, apprehensions and dynamics that they intend for their art.

E. Signature on behalf of the State Party

The report should be signed by an official empowered to do so on behalf of the State, and should include his or her name, title and the date of submission.

Name

Rui Jorge Cordeiro Gonçalves dos Santos

Title

The Honourable Mayor of Vila Real

Date

11-12-2020

Signature

Rui Jorge Cordeiro Gonçalves dos Santos

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Periodic Report (USL)

A. Cover sheet

A.1.

State Party

Name of State Party

China

A.2.

Date of deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession

This information is available online.

2004-12-02

A.3.

Element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List that is the subject of this report

Name of element

Hezhen Yimakan storytelling

Inscribed in

2011

Submitting State(s)

China

A.4.

Reporting period covered by this report

Please indicate the period covered by this report.

01-01-2016 - 30-06-2019

A.5.

Other elements inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, if any

Please list all other elements from your country inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, together with the year of inscription; for multinational elements, please indicate the other States concerned.

Meshrep (2010)
Qiang New Year festival (2009)
Traditional design and practices for building Chinese wooden arch bridges (2009)
Traditional Li textile techniques: spinning, dyeing, weaving and embroidering (2009)
Watertight-bulkhead technology of Chinese junks (2010)
Wooden movable-type printing of China (2010)

A.6.

Executive summary of the report

Please provide an executive summary of the report that will allow general readers to understand the current status of the element, any positive or negative impacts of inscription, the implementation of safeguarding measures during the reporting period and their possible update for the following years.

The Hezhen people have long inhabited the reaches of three rivers including Amur River, Sungari River, and Ussuri River in northeast China. With a population of 5354, accounting for merely 0.0004% of the total population of China (according to the Sixth National Population Census in 2010), it is one of the smallest ethnic minorities in China. Yimakan storytelling is a time-honored oral art in the form of singing and speaking that has been transmitted from generation to generation by the Hezhen people. It is narrated by performers in the Hezhen language in both a rhythmic and prosaic manner. Its themes cover heroic deeds, shamanic beliefs, fishing and hunting life, folk customs and romance, thus showing Hezhen collective memory, education, and entertainment in seasonal labor and festivals. In May 2006, Yimakan storytelling was inscribed on the list of representative elements of national intangible cultural heritage. In November 2011, it was inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List. In May 2016, President Xi Jinping came to Tongjiang City, Heilongjiang Province. He visited the Hezhen folklore exhibition and watched the teaching of Yimakan storytelling. He praised the Hezhen people for their long history and rich culture, especially their superb fishing and hunting skills, exquisite pattern art, and the great charm of Yimakan storytelling.
Since the first periodic report in 2016, the Hezhen people have carried forward their culture with more enthusiasm, and more people have spontaneously participated in the safeguarding and transmission of Yimakan storytelling, and conducted a series of activities accordingly. This promotes the protection of the Hezhen dialect and the revitalization of their cultural traditions, as well as further strengthening the cultural identity and historical continuity of relevant communities, groups, and individuals. Chinese governments at all levels and local cultural authorities continue to support community construction, policy making, capital investment, and other relevant aspects, which makes traditional practices maintained, and more non-governmental organizations and civil society are actively involved. During this reporting period, the safeguarding of Yimakan storytelling was more comprehensively implemented as follows:
Firstly, the practice of Yimakan storytelling in transmission and practice centers and the form of independent learning have been paralleled, and the size of the inheritance group and its social popularity have been multiplied. Secondly, the team of bearers continues to grow, and the number of female practitioners has increased significantly, forming a group of bearers of old, middle-aged, and young people. Thirdly, after taking local actions within communities, one sagdi jarimku (Mergen stories and long legends) and many uskuli jarimku (short stories) have been revitalized, and live practice has been strengthened in the local cultural context. Fourthly, teaching the Hezhen dialect in transmission and practice centers and WeChat groups continues to improve, and great achievements have been made in preserving the Hezhen language. Fifthly, importance has been attached to research of the art of Yimakan storytelling, compilation of teaching materials, establishment of special topics, and publication of safeguarding outcomes. Sixthly, the transmission and practice centers, WeChat, and family inheritance are used as practice channels, and the mechanisms of community and intergenerational transmission are becoming mature. Seventhly, the right to transmit and recreate Yimakan storytelling is respected, its formats are diverse, flexible and personalized, and its content has involved in the daily life and deeply integrated with folklore practices. Eighthly, the cognitive, educational, and entertaining functions of folk storytelling have been improved. The new presentation forms, such as performances by Yimakan storytelling art troupes and Yimakan plays, have brought the element from the classroom to the stage, from the community to the whole country. It has promoted the dynamic transmission of Yimakan storytelling, and reduced various risks that have once threatened the element.
The above safeguarding practices have given a positive response to the specific suggestions from the Committee in 2017 (Decision 12.COM 8.c.8):
(1) continue to identify several bearers and provide financial assistance, thus stimulating the community’s cultural self-confidence and consciousness to safeguard the ICH as a whole;
(2) continue to support the transmission of Yimakan storytelling and protect the Hezhen dialect, and expand the network of transmission centers in Hezhen communities;
(3) continue to consolidate the digital archiving of the element, laying foundation for the establishment of a thematic database;
(4) While Yimakan storytelling is incorporated into formal education, traditional modes of transmission have been improved. Currently, the social awareness of Yimakan storytelling has achieved regional consensus and received wide attention and support from the whole society. Hezhen Yimakan storytelling has become an important symbol of ICH in Heilongjiang Province. In 2019, the safeguarding of Yimakan storytelling was selected by the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of China as a case of good safeguarding practice. However, the impetus for the maintenance and development of oral arts is still insufficient, especially the extreme endangerment of the Hezhen language has not yet been fundamentally reversed, and then the oral transmission and communication of the element are plagued with difficulties, and its viabilities is still threatened and at risk.

A.7.

Contact person for correspondence

Provide the name, address and other contact information of the person responsible for correspondence concerning the report.

Title (Ms/Mr, etc.)

Ms

Family name

WU

Given name

Xuan

Institution/position

Center for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Heilongjiang Province, China / Head of Research Division

Address

FL-20 Jinrong Dasha, No. 10 Hongjunjie, Nangang District, Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province 150001, China

Telephone number

0086-15145096963

E-mail address

hljsfybhzx@126.com

Other relevant information

www.hljfwz.cn (website for Heilongjiang Intangible Cultural Heritage)
www.hezhezu.com (website for the Hezhen people in China)

B. Status of element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List

Refer to the nomination file or to previous reports, if any, as the basis for reporting on the current status of the element, and report only on relevant changes since the date of inscription on the List or since the previous report. Nomination files, specific timetables and earlier reports, if any, are available at https://ich.unesco.org or from the Secretariat, upon request.

The State Party shall pay special attention to the role of gender and shall endeavour to ensure the widest possible participation of the communities, groups and, where applicable, individuals concerned as well as relevant non-governmental organizations during the process of preparing this report, and is asked to describe how it has done so in point D below.

B.1.

Social and cultural functions

Please explain the social and cultural functions and meanings of the element today, within and for its community, the characteristics of the bearers and practitioners, and any specific roles or categories of persons with special responsibilities towards the element, among others. Attention should be given to any relevant changes related to inscription criterion U.1 (‘the element constitutes intangible cultural heritage as defined in Article 2 of the Convention’).

Yimakan storytelling always advocates heroes, promotes justice, bravery and kindness, pursues freedom and peace, which reflects the harmony between man and nature. It has profoundly influenced the values and spirit of the Hezhen people in the long collective practice of its communities. With the effective safeguarding, the element is respected and loved by the people, and more and more young Hezhen people are consciously participating in the transmission and practice. Based on Yimakan stories, Hezhen people have enriched their cultural life in communities by increasing diverse artistic creation, thus the number of new works has increased sharply and the audience is gradually expanding. The cultural identity, ethnic self-esteem and self-confidence of the Hezhen people have been drastically improved, and community cohesion has developed in pace with social inclusion. Yimakan storytelling has been strengthened in such festivals as Urgun Festival, Deer Festival, Horkan Cultural Festival, and life rituals including weddings and birthdays. Its oral practice also exerts multiple social and cultural functions of maintaining collective memory, teaching traditional virtues and entertaining. At the same time, through the Yimakan storytelling art troupes, Yimakan eco plays and dance dramas, Hezhen folklore garden tours, and other new ways, Yimakan storytelling is merged into local cultural exchanges and the exhibitions and performances of ICH. Thus, it acts as a dynamic window to understand Hezhen communities and enhances cultural dialogue and mutual respect among different ethnic groups, communities, and regions. Remarkably, the transmission and practice of the element has started an upsurge of learning the Hezhen dialect, and Hezhen language learning has become the curriculum in many schools. It has been popular for community members, especially young people, to learn their own language consciously. For the Hezhen language, which was identified as “seriously endangered” by UNESCO, the people are now more active and have shouldered the responsibility spontaneously to organize dialect learning and Yimakan storytelling exchanges, thus gradually bringing this endangered language, which bears historical memory and cultural roots, back to daily life.
Yimakanqi mafa,Yimakan storytelling folk artists, are now identified as the representative bearers of ICH by cultural authorities at all levels upon recommendation of communities, and their identities have changed from leaders, shamans, and elders to the custodians and spokespersons of their cultural heritage. They shoulder the special responsibility of transmitting Yimakan sagdi jarimku and uskuli jarimku, story motifs, traditional titles, intonation and tune, and narrative art. They transmitted Yimakan storytelling off work and displayed in festivals and rituals, with the increase of social activities and the constant improvement of cultural status. Under their leadership and inspiration, more and more Hezhen people in local communities have become enthusiastic practitioners of Yimakan storytelling, thereby creating a strong atmosphere of transmission and practice. Some practitioners have got the chance to perform after learing the element. Those who cannot participate in the on-the-spot training at the transmission and practice center actively asked the organization responsible for safeguarding the element to share audio and video materials on the Internet, thus a group of self-learning and self-training practitioners grew up through online exchange. You Di, a female trainee, expressed that “Yimakan storytelling is an ethnic treasure that has recorded numerous stories of our ancestors. I hope we can better transmit it, let more people understand it, and live up to the attention given to the Hezhen people from all ethnic groups in China!”
There is a total of 84 practitioners. They respectively teach in six Yimakan transmission and practice centers in Heilongjiang Province every week. Meanwhile, four practioners have organized teaching activities in four WeChat groups which were spontaneously established by Hezhen people on Internet platforms, including “Hezhen People”, “Bacha Hezhen Language Learning”, “Hezhen Yimakan Language”, and “Pioneer of International Phonetic Alphabet”. These representative bearers are playing the role of transmitting, helping, and leading with full enthusiasm, making due contributions to the cultivation of intergenerational talents of Yimakan, the expansion of the range of practioners and the formation of a community transmission network, to ensure the viability of the element.

B.2.

Assessment of its viability and current risks

Please describe the current level of viability of the element, particularly the frequency and extent of its practice, the strength of traditional modes of transmission, the demographics of practitioners and audiences and its sustainability. Please also identify and describe the threats, if any, to the element's continued transmission and enactment and describe the severity and immediacy of such threats, giving particular attention to any strengthening or weakening of the element’s viability subsequent to inscription.

Through years of safeguarding, Yimakan storytelling has been recognized by Hezhen people and the public, and has increased prosperity of Hezhen folk culture. Currently, the practitioners of Yimakan storytelling are taking an active part in various transmission, practice and festival activities, and Yimakan storytelling is presented in many cultural and arts activities, including traditional festivals, international cultural and artistic exchanges. In particular, its tie with daily life has been improved. Local people usually tell corresponding Yimakan stories at weddings, funerals, rituals, ceremonies and family gatherings. Therefore, Yimakan storytelling and Hezhen language-speaking have become a fashion of Hezhen people. The numerous practitioners learn from each other in a united and harmonious atmosphere. Compared with the period of inscription in 2011 and the first periodic report in 2016, the bearers have been increased from 5 to 14 and to 84, including 63 females and 21 males. Among them, 14 bearers are under 20 years old (7 females and 7 males), 6 bearers are 20-30 years old (4 females and 2 males), 36 bearers are 30-50 years old (30 females and 6 males), 29 bearers are over 50 years old (23 females and 6 males). At the same time, the audiences of Yimakan storytelling have spread from original concentrated practice areas to all Hezhen communities, and even to the total Hezhen population across the country.
Although the number of activities in the transmission and practice centers has decreased since the first periodic report, the number of transmitting activities on WeChat has increased year by year. Nearly 300 hours class have been taught in six transmission and practice centers over the past four years, and more than 600 hours class have been taught on WeChat. The number of trainees who learn Yimakan storytelling has grown from nearly 200 to more than 400. Their average age is about 40, and most of them can speak the Hezhen dialect for daily use.
After the inscription of Yimakan storytelling, its viability has been greatly improved, but the threats to its continued transmission and practice still exist without radical changes. In summary, there are five factors: First, due to the process of global economic integration and the impact of foreign culture, the Hezhen people’s living environment for fishing and hunting has undergone drastic changes, and the cultural space that Yimakan storytelling relies on is diminishing. Second, the critically endangered trend of the Hezhen dialect has become a major obstacle for its continued transmission. As the elders passed away in recent years, there are only a dozen people who can proficiently use the Hezhen language. Only 30% of the language has been revived through the transmission and practice of Yimakan storytelling, the teaching and revival recording of the language. Third, few young people are willing to devote to the learning and practice of Yimakan storytelling, and the currently expanding practitioners are also at risk of reduction at any time. Fourth, some trainees quit due to the lack of pragmatic communication environment and the difficulty to learn Yimakan storytelling and Hezhen languages. Fifth, there is an over-commercialization tendency to improperly change traditional Yimakan storytelling for stage performance. Such decontextualization has reduced some storytelling activities to simplistic performances, and it cannot sustain the livelihood.

B.3.

Implementation of safeguarding measures

Please report on the safeguarding measures described in the nomination file, and previous report, if any. Describe how they have been implemented and how they have substantially contributed to the safeguarding of the element during the reporting period, taking note of external or internal constraints such as limited resources. Include, in particular, information on the measures taken to ensure the viability of the element by enabling the community to continue to practise and transmit it. Include the following detailed information concerning the implementation of the set of safeguarding measures or safeguarding plan:

B.3.a. Objectives and results

Indicate what primary objective(s) were addressed and what concrete results were attained during the reporting period.

(1) Rrepresentative bearers has been supported and encouraged to take apprentices. The representative bearers are subsidized to solve their worries and enhance their motivation to take apprentices. They actively take part in transmission and safeguarding activities in communities. So far, there are 16 bearers to teach in transmission and practice centers, with more than 100 regular trainees, and more than 80 excellent successors of the element has been cultivated.
(2) Importance has been attached to Hezhen language teaching, and efforts have been made to rescue the dialect. The Hezhen language is taught at Yimakan storytelling transmission and practice centers and through Hezhen language WeChat groups. Hezhen language courses have been offered in schools in main settlements. Hezhen language learning is also available on the transmission network of minority languages, and five Hezhen language tutorials or reference books have been published. At present, the number of people who master more than 20% of the Hezhen language has increased by more than 100; thus, the Hezhen language has effectively been revived from its endangered condition.
(3) Transmission and practice centers have been improved and the transmission mechanism has been enhanced. Besides the five Yimakan storytelling transmission and practice centers established in the communities, the Fuyuan Transmission and Practice Center has been newly established and equipped with supporting facilities. The Center for the Safeguarding of ICH compiled two sagdi jarimku teaching materials in four years, and organized bearers to carry out transmission and practice activities. A competition or assessment is held every six months or once a year. In combination with family inheritance and social transmission of spontaneous WeChat groups, the community transmission and intergenerational inheritance mechanism has been improved to ensure its continuity.
(4) Field research was organized to enrich the archives. The cultural authorities, safeguarding and research insititutions at all levels continued to organize experts, scholars and relevant professionals to conduct field research in the communities, in order to make the status of the element and its practitioners recorded, collated and researched, and to establish a big data platform for Hezhen cultural heritage.
(5) A platform for exhibition and performance was built to increase the frequency of practice. In the Hezhen Cultural Ecological Reserve, activities such as transmission, performance, promotion and exchanges were regularly held. The Hezhen Cultural Center and the Hezhen Folklore Garden were established, where the Yimakan storytelling exhibition area were set up. Five areas were collectively organized to launch the publicity and exhibition events of Yimakan season. Yimakan storytelling was recommended to present at the National Cultural and Natural Heritage Day and the National Quyi Week, and it was widely promoted through the news media, festivals, and cultural exchanges between China and foreign countries.
(6) A series of research results was published, and a host of literary and artistic works was created. More than 10 research results such as Yimakan Storytelling: China’s Masterpiece were published. In 2017, Yimakan eco-drama Lahasus was performed in Beijing, which has introduced Hezhen culture to Beijing. Based on Yimakan storytelling, many literary and artistic works were created to reflect the life of Hezhen people, including the music works Being Amazed with Hezhen Landscapes, and the song and dance drama Shenqir Flowers Are Blooming.

B.3.b. Safeguarding activities

List the key activities that were carried out during this reporting period in order to achieve these expected results. Please describe the activities in detail and note their effectiveness or any problems encountered in implementing them.

(1) Since 2016, the national finance department has successively subsidized 160,000 RMB to the representative bearers of Yimakan storytelling to guarantee their basic life. In order to consolidate the intergenerational transmission, 60,000 RMB was invested to establish four transmission and practice groups of different ages, namely the elderly, middle-aged, young and adolescent group. Incentive measures were taken to reward outstanding trainees to stimulate their enthusiasm for learning, and desktop computers, laptops, cameras and recording pens were all equipped to provide a material guarantee for transmission and practice. A subsidy system was implemented to make up for trainees’ missed work, which tended to lead trainees to deviate from their learning purpose of publicizing ethnic culture, and was changed to a quarterly assessment system in 2018. Bonuses ranging from 100 to 500 were given to those who participated in the transmission and practice for a long time to encourage them to learn Yimakan storytelling.
(2) Since 2016, the safeguarding of the Hezhen dialect has been strengthened to guide the Hezhen people to learn and appreciate Yimakan storytelling. The main activities include: the implementation of bilingual teaching both in Chinese and Hezhen languages in Jiejinkou and Bacha’s primary and secondary schools, which has achieved remarkable effects; the Center for Safeguarding of ICH of Heilongjiang Province, Tongjiang Hezhen Research Society and Jiamusi Vocational Education Group published books such as Dictionary of Commonly Used Words in Hezhen Language, School textbook Hezhen Language, Dictionary of Grammar Function in Hezhen Language and 700 Sentences of Hezhen Language. The Hezhen language and Yimakan storytelling were displayed, spread and promoted through stage plays in the Hezhen language, language learning and competitions, and Internet platforms such as QQ and WeChat. At present, the percentage of the Hezhen ethnic group that can speak the Hezhen language has seen an increase from about 0.5% to nearly 2% as compared to more than 10 years ago.
(3) Since 2016, to safeguard Yimakan storytelling in an all-round way, the application for the national cultural ecology reserve of the Hezhen has been actively promoted. A total of 964,500 RMB has been invested to hold regular events to transmit, publicize and display Hezhen culture which is represented by Yimakan storytelling. Through the Yimakan Publicity Season and a variety of activities, including Yimakan Classroom, Yimakan Storytelling Entering the Campus, the Military Camps, the Parks, and the Scenic Spots, Yimakan Publicity and Performances on the National Cultural and Natural Heritage Day and other activities, it has expanded the audience of Yimakan storytelling transmission and showcased the achievements of Yimakan safeguarding. A Yimakan Storytelling Exhibition and Experience Area was set up in the Hezhen Folk Culture Experience Hall to allow visitors to experience the storytelling art, and to widely publicize the traditional Yimakan and Hezhen culture.
(4) From 2017 to 2018, two Hezhen literary and artistic works were launched to transmit the art of Yimakan storytelling. Jiamusi Performing Arts Co., Ltd. launched China’s first original Hezhen dance drama Ussuri Song, in which Yimakan storytelling was skillfully integrated. The drama toured 32 times across China and improved the visibility of Yimakan storytelling nationwide. Based on a traditional Yimakan story, the eco-drama Lahasus was performed in Tongjiang after touring several areas. It played a great role in transmitting and spreading Yimakan storytelling and promoting Hezhen fishing and hunting culture and its folk culture.
(5) Since 2016, the State has allocated 270,000 RMB to carry out comprehensive field research and digital archiving on Yimakan storytelling through local cultural authorities. The archiving and research were centered on the elderly Yimakan storytellers and eight representative bearers, and video documentaries were recorded.
(6) Starting from 2016, the State has invested 160,000 RMB to support the Heilongjiang Intangible Heritage Society, the Hezhen Research Society and individual experts to successively publish a series of Yimakan storytelling recordings and research results including Tongjiang in China - Yimakan Storytelling of the Hezhen Ethnicity.
(7) From 2016 to 2019, relying on community transmission, the safeguarding mechanism was improved in a joint effort to carry out the safeguarding and transmission of the Hezhen Yimakan storytelling. Under the guidance of the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of China, the Heilongjiang Provincial Culture and Tourism Department and relevant cultural authorities in Tongjiang City, Raohe County of Shuangyashan City, and the suburbs of Jiamusi City, as the primary governing bodies, and the Centers for the Safeguarding of ICH at all levels, as the specific enforcement bodies, have deployed nearly 80 people to assist relevant communities and groups in updating and implementing various safeguarding measures. Meanwhile, the Branch of Studies on the Hezhen under the Society of Ethno-national Studies in Heilongjiang Province, the Yimakan Storytelling Art Troupes, Heilongjiang Provincial Academy of Social Sciences, Heilongjiang University, Dalian Minzu University and other non-governmental organizations, academic groups, scientific research and teaching units of universities have also played roles in intellectual support and professional consultation.
At present, more than ten non-governmental academic organizations directly or indirectly participate in the transmission and safeguarding of Yimakan storytelling in Heilongjiang Province, and more than 200 people engage in the research, training and practice, and other supportive work relevant to the transmission of the element. Villagers’ organizations, bearer groups and young generations in related communities are key grassroots forces, and more than 100 individuals have engaged in the academic research of Yimakan storytelling. Five villagers’ committees from Hezhen communities, more than 400 villagers and 84 trained practitioners from the elderly, middle-aged, young, and adolescent groups are actively engaged in safeguarding, transmission and practice activities focusing on consolidating community transmission. It has greatly improved the practice frequency of the element, thus enhancing its viability.

B.3.c. Participation of communities, groups or individuals in the safeguarding activities

Describe how communities, groups or, if appropriate, individuals as well as relevant non-governmental organizations have effectively participated, including in terms of gender roles, in the safeguarding measures. Describe the role of the implementing organization or body (name, background, etc.) and the human resources that were available for implementing safeguarding activities.

(1) Hezhen people are spontaneously organizing community-based transmission activities. In centralized transmission areas of the element, Hezhen communities are actively participating in the formulation of safeguarding plans and the implementation of safeguarding measures organized by cultural authorities. Representative bearers are actively performing their responsibilities and obligations for transmission, thereby playing a key role in safeguarding the element. Hezhen people in Tongjiang are actively seeking government support and establishing ethnic cultural and creative funds to support the safeguarding activities of Yimakan storytelling. Yimakan storytelling has become necessary in mass cultural activities such as wedding, sacrifice ceremonies and family gatherings, thus occupying a fundamental cultural space. Community members actively participate in such activities, and the number of females is significantly higher than that of males, and they are more active than ever.
(2) NGOs are promoting the research and publicity of Yimakan storytelling. The Hezhen Research Society organizes relevant experts to compile and publish books and language tutorials on Yimakan storytelling, publish academic papers, and provide rich cultural and historical materials for the transmission of Yimakan storytelling. Meanwhile, the Society collaborates with the township cultural centers to hold activities that integrate the safeguarding of Yimakan storytelling into the community action to increase public awareness of ICH and its importance. The Hezhen Ethnic Language Association of Tongjiang City compiled relevant language teaching materials for Yimakan storytelling. Ethnic language classes were opened in the central schools in Jiejinkou and Bacha Hezhen Ethnic Township. Yimakan Storytelling Art Troupes have been established successively in five areas to promote the protection of Hezhen culture by means of narration and singing.
(3) Relevant communities and groups have received all-round support from governments and cultural authorities at all levels in each stage of implementing safeguarding plans. Relying on unified deployment of the Heilongjiang Provincial Culture and Tourism Department, the safeguarding organization, Center for the Safeguarding of ICH of Heilongjiang Province, is entrusted to assist relevant communities in scientifically formulating safeguarding plans, organizing research, recording, investigation and assessment, so that the safeguarding of Yimakan storytelling can be implemented in a scientific, regulated and systematized manner. Meanwhile, this professional center has collaborated with more than 20 scientific research institutions, industry associations, schools and other units to promote the safeguarding of Yimakan storytelling. It has established an expert advisory group to carry out transmission and promotion activities in cooperation with communities. For example, since 2016, more than 120 safeguarding and transmission activities have been held across the province. In the centralized practice area of the element, local governments have included the safeguarding in their priority project, which is under the direct jurisdiction of the county and district leaders in charge. In the past four years, more than 400 people have been deployed by various stakeholders to assist relevant communities, groups, bearers and practitioners to effectively participate in the implementation of safeguarding measures.

B.3.d. Timetable

Indicate in a timetable when each activity was implemented.

(1) 2016-2019: safeguarding and training of Yimakan storytelling bearers
Two types of teaching activities both in the Yimakan storytelling transmission and practice centers and in WeChat groups are carried out on a regular basis each year, the tracking and research of teaching is conducted regularly in a unified way to promote the oriented transmission of the sagdi jarimku of Site Mergen, and outstanding performers will be rewarded.
In 2017, more Yimalan storytelling transmission and practice activities were carried out in campuses, towns and communities, ensuring that a centralized transmission and practice activity be held once a week.
In 2018, the Center for the Safeguarding of ICH of Heilongjiang Province conducted a comprehensive research on the safeguarding status of the Hezhen Yimakan storytelling. The provincial ICH division and relevant Yimakan experts has formulated an evaluation report on the safeguarding status with more than 10,000 words.
In 2019, a training class of Yimakan storytelling was opened in Aoqihezhe Primary School, and bearers were organized to visit the Taoli Language and Art Training Center in Raohe County to teach the children to sing Shalun Mergen. They prepared music for the aria section of the newly compiled teaching materials about the sagdi jarimku. In the same year, the text and music score editing as well as audio recording were carried out for learning resources.
(2) 2016-2019: Documentaries of Yimakan storytelling were shot, and the oral history of representative bearers was recorded during the field research,.
In 2016, Yimakan Forever (Part 1, Part 2 and Part 3), a documentary of Yimakan storytelling, was shot;
In 2017, Video of the Oral History by Representative Bearers of Yimakan Storytelling was shot;
In 2018, documentaries including an exclusive interview with Ge Yuxia, a provincial representative bearer of the Hezhen Yimakan storytelling, were shot;
(3) 2016-2019: Exhibitions and performances of Yimakan storytelling were held.
In 2016, relevant personnel went to Jiamusi to perform for local people, officers and soldiers; participated in performances such as the Sino-Russian Border Cultural Season; organized bearers to visit Russia and participate in Sino-Russian cultural exchanges; Yimakan shadow play Siwen Mergen toured 7 cities in Jilin, Liaoning, and Hebei provinces, with a total of 21 shows.
In 2017, Hezhen Yimakan storytelling was promoted in the shooting activities of the Beautiful China Cities TV series sponsored by CCTV. The Yimakan performance troupe went to Yongqing Community in Tongjiang and participated in the festival of a cultural village themed “Jiejin, the Most Beautiful among Hezhen Group”, the artistic performance on the 10th Wurigong Meeting of Hezhen Ethnicity, and other events;
In 2018, the Center for the Safeguarding of ICH of Heilongjiang Province organized the Hezhen Yimakan Performance Season. The communities in five centralized transmission areas showcased Yimakan storytelling; successively participated in the publicity activities such as Local Arts of Raohe County in Shenzhen, the Global Promotion Conference for Heilongjiang Sponsored by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of China. The Yimakan Art Troupe participated in the Fujin International Rural Carnival, Yimakan Storytelling Entering Yongqing Community of Tongjiang, and taught students and villagers Yimakan storytelling.
In 2019, the Yimakan Art Troupe successively participated in the National Cultural and Natural Heritage Day, the National Quyi Week for ICH, the Tongjiang Promotion Season of Eight Major Hezhen Cultures, ICH of Jiejinkou Hezhen Ethnic Township Cultural Village, Heilongjiang Performance Art Exhibition and Exchange of ICH, Shuangyashan Exhibition and Performance of ICH, and other publicity and exhibition activities.
(4) 2016-2019: publication of a series of research achievements on Yimakan storytelling
In 2016, History of Studies on Hezhen Yimakan Storytelling and Hezhen Language were published;
In 2017, Oral History of Yimakan Storytelling by Representative Bearers and Concise Hezhen Dictionary were published;
In 2018, the Yimakan Storytelling Art Seminar and Performance was held in four eastern regions of Heilongjiang Province;
In 2019, the text and music score collation of a new edition of Yimakan storytelling Katan Manga Mergen and Eagle Girl as well as Chuqi Mergen and Birchbark Boat was completed;
(5) 2017-2019: rehearsal art practice of Hezhen Yimakan storytelling Lahasus
In September 2017, the Yimakan eco-drama Lahasus, based on a traditional classic Yimakan story, was premiered. It was performed in Beijing in December, and performed in 2017 the Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning and Inner Mongolia Joint Show and won the Outstanding Drama Award.

B.3.e. Budget expenditures

Provide the detailed amounts of the funds used for the implementation of each activity (if possible, in US dollars), identifying the funding source for each (governmental sources, in-kind community inputs, etc.).

- Special funds provided by central government
(1) Safeguarding and training of Yimakan storytelling bearers: a total of 220,000 RMB, of which:
From 2016 to 2019, the national-level Yimakan storytelling bearers’ allowance for transmission, totaling 160,000 RMB
From 2016 to 2019, organization of trainings on bearers of the element in transmission and practice centers, totaling 60,000 RMB
(2) Shooting of Yimakan storytelling documentaries, field research, text records and video recording: totaling 270,000 RMB, of which:
In 2016, shooting, editing, and conversion of the promotional video of Yimakan Storytelling Entering the Campuses, totaling 50,000 RMB
In 2018, editing and producing a promotional video for Yimakan Publicity Season and the standard storytelling of bearers, totaling 76,000 RMB, including: 43,000 RMB used for shooting the promotional films in Jijiamusi, Tongjiang, the suburbs of Jiamusi, Raohe and Fuyuan during the Hezhen Yimakan Publicity Season; 33,000 RMB used for the standard language recording of You Wenlan, a provincial representative bearer
From 2016 to 2019, field research, text records and video recording: totaling 144,000 RMB
(3) Supporting related regions to hold promotional activities for Yimakan storytelling: totaling 1,327,500 RMB, of which:
From 2016 to 2019, purchasing the equipment and supplies required for transmission, practice and safeguarding activities, totaling 255,000 RMB
From 2016 to 2019, holding the teaching, exhibition, and promotion activities for Yimakan storytelling, including tours to communities, campuses, and town squares; annual exhibitions and performances on National Cultural and Natural Heritage Day; and shooting promotional videos, totaling 964,500 RMB
From 2016 to 2019, organizing academic seminars, forums, demonstration and discussions for the achievements, and field research, totaling 108,000 RMB
(4) Publication of a series of research achievements on Yimakan storytelling: 160,000 RMB, including:
In 2016, the compiling, publishing and printing of Dictionary of Commonly Used Words in Hezhen Language, totaling 70,000 RMB
From 2017 to 2019, the design, compiling and CD production of teaching materials for Yimakan sagdi jarimku of Shalun Mergen, and the printing of special publicity issues, totaling 90,000 RMB
(5) From 2017 to 2019, rehearsal art practice of Yimakan eco-drama Lahasus: 50,000 RMB
The above fees amounted to 2.0275 million RMB, and the source of funds was government investment.

- Community investment
(6) Production of comics of Yimakan stories for young readers: 727,000 RMB, including:
From 2017 to 2019, comics of Yimakan stories, totaling 475,000 RMB
In 2018, four fishskin paintings of Yimakan stories, totaling 83,000 RMB
In 2018, the exhibition of Yimakan fishskin paintings at Tongjiang Fishskin Culture and Art Museum, totaling 49,000 RMB
From 2018 to 2019, paintings of Yimakan stories, totaling 120,000 RMB
The above fees amounted to 727,000 RMB, which is funded by Jiamusi Mahua Hezhen Fishskin Culture Co., Ltd.
In the past four years, a total of 2.7545 million RMB,has been invested in the safeguarding activities of the element.

B.3.f. Overall effectiveness of the safeguarding activities

Provide an overall assessment of the effectiveness of the activities undertaken to achieve the expected results and of the efficiency of the use of funds for implementing the activities. Please indicate how the activities contributed to achieving the results and whether other activities could have contributed better to achieving the same results. Also indicate whether the same results could have been achieved with less funding, whether the human resources available were appropriate and whether communities, groups and individuals could have been better involved.

At present, the overall effectiveness of Yimakan safeguarding is basically the same as the expected goals stated in the nomination file, and the safeguarding achievements are beyond expectation. The funds invested in various activities have been used properly, and corresponding safeguarding effects have been achieved. The central and local finance departments have continuously allocated a large amount of special funds to provide necessary financial guarantee for the transmission, practice and promotion of Yimakan storytelling. A scientific, planned, and systematic transmission and safeguarding mechanism has been formed for safeguarding the element.
Six transmission and practice centers have been established, and basic transmission funds were provided by the central and local finance departments to ensure that representative bearers could regularly carry out social and intergenerational transmission in their communities and groups. In the past four years, there have been more than 4,000 person-times of transmission and practice activities. One Yimakan sagdi jarimku has been completely restored, and another sagdi jarimku and a number of uskuli jarimku have been effectively restored. The transmission groups and social popularity have expanded to almost the whole ethnic group. Hezhen language has been effectively preserved. In this way, Yimakan storytelling has gained a wider range of visibility. Years of transmission and practice activities for Yimakan storytelling have exerted a dramatic and profound social impact among Hezhen people. Nearly 90% of the trainees have grown from not owning language skills to mastering simple daily expressions, and then to telling a long episode of Site Mergen. As the disseminators of ethnic culture both in life and on the stage, these community members and their hard work and persistence in transmission and exploration are highly acclaimed by the society. They have played an immeasurable role in the acquisition of their dialect, the maintenance of cultural identity and the inheritance of ethnic culture.
A database of information archives reflecting the basic features of Yimakan storytelling has been preliminarily established. The provincial and local centers for the safeguarding of ICH have established special Yimakan storytelling archives; each transmission and practice center has set up an archiving system of text, image and photo materials for teaching, activities and field research, and classified recording and collation of texts, pictures, videos and music scores are carried out in each transmission and practice class based on specific contents. These efforts have established a sound environment for information sharing in the safeguarding of the element.
The exhibition and performance activities have been promoted to boost communication and exchange. Firstly, to participate in large-scale activities and performances inside and outside the province. Apart from the local major festivals as the carriers of publicity activities, they also take active part in various artistic performances on TV and radio, and the exhibitions and performances in various regions. It has expanded the social influence of Yimakan storytelling. Secondly, to carry out activities such as Yimakan Storytelling Entering the Campuses, the Communities, the Squares, and the Military Camps. Exhibitions and performances of Yimakan storytelling are held at irregular intervals in Hezhen-intensive primary and secondary schools. In this way Yimakan storytelling has been vigorously publicized and promoted. The Yimakan shadow play Siwen Mergen has been performed more than 50 times in communities, military camps, and campuses. In 2018, the Center for the Safeguarding of ICH of Heilongjiang Province deployed centralized publicity season activities in five regions. 24 performances were staged in three months with nearly 10,000 audiences.
Two sagdi jarimku textbooks were compiled and a series of research results were published. Firstly, two sagdi jarimku, namely Site Mergen and Shalun Mergen, were selected from the existing 47 Yimakan stories, and textbooks were compiled and revised to integrate Chinese, International Phonetic Alphabet and Chinese phonetic notation. An elderly Hezhen person who knows Hezhen language best was the final editor to protect the cultural genes and traditions as well as ethnic memory of the language to the greatest extent. In 2016, the sagdi jarimku of Site Mergen was revitalized in an all-round way, which was a milestone in the history of Yimakan storytelling safeguarding. In 2018, the tutorial textbook on Shalun Mergen, which had been compiled in two years, was distributed to each transmission and practice center. When trainees basically mastered the Hezhen phonetic spelling method, they would start a new round of transmission and practice by means of self-learning. Secondly, a series of research results were published. Nearly 20 monographs were published. The Dictionary of Commonly Used Words in Hezhen Language was distributed with the textbook Shalun Mergen. The publication of these works marked that the safeguarding of Yimakan storytelling had shifted from static to dynamic, with more abundant, comprehensive and systematic achievements.

C. Update of the safeguarding measures

C.1.

Updated safeguarding plan

Please provide an update of the safeguarding plan included in the nomination file or in the previous report. In particular provide detailed information as follows:

  1. a. What primary objective(s) will be addressed and what concrete results will be expected?
  2. b. What are the key activities to be carried out in order to achieve these expected results? Describe the activities in detail and in their best sequence, addressing their feasibility.
  3. c. How will the State(s) Party(ies) concerned support the implementation of the updated safeguarding plan?

(1) Continue to support representative bearers and encourage transmission and practice activities. Every year, each bearer is granted a fixed living subsidy and provided with the opportunity to participate in exhibitions and performances. Each bearer give public performance of Yimakan storytelling for five or more times per year. It will help to improve his/her social status and win more respect from the society.
(2) Preservation of the Hezhen dialect needs unremitting efforts and multiple measures. Yimakan storytelling transmission and practice centers conduct Hezhen language teaching as well. Hezhen language teachers teach at least four hours a week in the WeChat group. Hezhen language courses are opened in schools in major communities. Language tutorials or reference books are published to aid in learning. Language teachers in colleges and universities as well as bearers are hired to jointly research and summarize “pure pinyin characters and grammar” suitable for learning. In this way Hezhen language will be effectively preserved from its previously endangered status.
(3) Data archives to be completed and improved. The Provincial Center for the Safeguarding of ICH and the ICH center of the community jointly carry out field research and ethnographic interviews of Yimakan storytelling and other related elements, representative bearers, and elderly Hezhen people, as well as data archiving and study. The Provincial Center for the Safeguarding of ICH entrusts the National Library of China and renowned Yimakan experts to fully summarize the text materials related to Yimakan storytelling.
(4) To imorove Yimakan storytelling transmission and practice centers. Well-equipped teaching and publicity facilities are provided. Related personnel are organized to compile two sagdi jarimku teaching materials for the transmission and practice centers. Bearers would regularly teach Yimakan and Hezhen languages, and some trainees would be granted subsidies for missed work. Regular assessment and competition would be conducted for the transmission and practice task, and material and spiritual rewards given to outstanding trainees and teachers.
(5) To maximize publicity in Yimakan storytelling exhibition venues. Tongjiang Hezhen Cultural Center sets up the Yimakan storytelling exhibition area, Yimakan Storytelling Transmission and Practice Center and Hezhen Comprehensive Culture and Art Transmission and Practice Room. In combination with Dalian Minzu University’s big data platform for Hezhen cultural heritage, digital protection, three-dimensional light display and on-site experience are achieved for Yimakan storytelling.
(6) To strengthen integration of ICH and cultural tourism. A Hezhen Cultural Park, Hezhen Mural Town of Northeast China are established, and a performance theater is set up to provide a platform for the Yimakan Storytelling Art Troupe to perform on site during peak tourist seasons and to promote a sustainable livelihood.
(7) The establishment of Cultural Ecology Reserve of the Hezhen are advanced step by step as planned. An overall plan for the Jiejinkou Cultural Ecology Reserve Park is formulated, and provincial level Cultural Ecology Reserve of the Hezhen is set up in Heilongjiang Province. With the joint efforts of governments and cultural departments at all levels, the application for National Cultural Ecology Reserve of the Hezhen is to be finalized.
The implementation of each safeguarding plan is based on respecting the wishes of Hezhen people and their prior informed consent. It cannot be implemented without the participation of the Hezhen bearers of Yimakan storytelling. The Chinese government provides full support for the implementation of the safeguarding plan in terms of funds, policies, and intelligence. Relevant cultural authorities will perform their respective duties and responsibilities, and the organizations responsible for the safeguarding of the element will jointly put in human resources to complete specific objectives and tasks.

C.2.

Timetable for future actitivies

Provide a timetable for the updated safeguarding plan (within a time-frame of approximately four years).

In the next reporting period (2020-2023), the updated safeguarding plan will be fulfilled based on the following timetable:
(1) Continue to carry out transmission, practice, exhibition and promotion activities
With the coordinated deployment of the Center for the Safeguarding of ICH of Heilongjiang Province, the transmission and practice centers and the platforms, will continue to focus on the daily transmission and practice of the sagdi jarimku of Site Mergen and Shalun Mergen, and carry out publicity activities such as performances and exhibitions of Yimakan Storytelling Entering the Campuses and Scenic Spots during the annual National Cultural and Natural Heritage Day and important festivals.
In 2020, the sagdi jarimku of Site Mergen will be strengthened, and a new class of sagdi jarimku of Shalun Mergen will be opened. The publicity of Yimakan Storytelling Entering the Campuses and Communities will be focused in two months.
In 2021, the sagdi jarimku of Site Mergen will be consolidated, and Shalun Mergen will be transmitted and practiced. The Yimakan Storytelling Competition will be held. Experts will be invited for evaluation, and material rewards will be given to outstanding performers. Meanwhile, exhibitions and performances of Yimakan Storytelling Entering the Campuses, the Communities and Scenic Spots will be carried out all year round.
In 2022, teaching of the textbook on Shalun Mergen will be completed. Meanwhile, exhibitions and performances of Yimakan Storytelling Entering the Campuses, the Communities and the Urban Scenic Spots will continue.
In 2023, the sagdi jarimku of Site Mergen and Shalun Mergen will be consolidated. Meanwhile, exhibitions and performances of Yimakan storytelling will be carried out synchronously.
(2) Carry out academic research and publish the research results of Yimakan storytelling
In 2020, experts and scholars of Heilongjiang Province will be organized to hold seminars on Hezhen Yimakan storytelling, and identify research topics and directions.
In 2021, research and interviews will be carried out to collect and collate research materials.
In 2022, work will be conducted to publish the research results of Yimakan storytelling
In 2023, Katan Manga Mergen and the Eagle Girl and other research results of Yimakan storytelling will be published.
(3) Carry out data filing and video shooting of representative bearers
In 2020, data filing will be conducted on representative bearers at the national, provincial, and municipal levels in the region. The audio, video and text records will be collated. Literature, pictures, audio-visual and other materials will be organized to keep more scientific, systematic and comprehensive records.
In 2021, video shooting of national representative bearers will be conducted.
In 2022, the documentary Hezhen Groups Linked Heart by Heart, Yimakan Storytelling of Ancient and Modern Times, will be shot.
(4) Improve the Yimakan storytelling database and information sharing platform
In 2020, the editing and uploading of bearers’ text, audio and video materials will be carried out.
In 2021, in cooperation with universities in Dalian, Hezhen language and Yimakan storytelling will be put on the minority language inheritance network, and then pushed to the whole world through a professional Internet platform.
(5) Preserve the Hezhen dialect and establish an Internet platform
In 2020, the Center for the Safeguarding of ICH of Heilongjiang Province, the Heilongjiang Provincial Ethnic and Religious Affairs Committee, and Heilongjiang Department of Education will jointly carry out the preservation of Hezhen dialect and popularize the smart reading edition of the Graphic Textbook on 700 Sentences of Hezhen Language.
In 2022, a vocabulary contest will be organized for the Hezhen dialect. Based on the Concise Hezhen Dictionary published by Heilongjiang People’s Publishing House, the methods of compulsory answer, rush answer and oral narration of propositions in Hezhen language will be adopted. Experts will be invited for evaluation, and those with outstanding performance will be rewarded.
In 2023, an information sharing column will be established for Yimakan storytelling on the WeChat public account to promptly update the academic and performance information, pictures, and audio-visual materials of the element. New media accounts such as Tik Tok will be opened to update the information synchronously.
(6) Promote contemporary literary and artistic creation and rehearsal activities of Yimakan storytelling
In 2020, Site Mergen micro-animation script or stage myth drama will be planned, and 100 paintings of Yimakan story series will be completed.
In 2021, the creation of Site Mergen micro-animation script will be completed.
In 2022, debugging of Site Mergen micro-animation script will be conducted, and resources will be sought after for trial shooting of the micro animations.
In 2023, shooting of Site Mergen micro animations or stage myth drama will be completed, then it will be released and screened. The creation, rehearsal and performance of Chuqi Mergen and Birchbark Boat, a new Yimakan sitcom of the Hezhen ethnicity, will be completed.

C.3.

Budget for future activities

Provide the estimates of the funds required for implementing the updated safeguarding plan (if possible, in US dollars), identifying any available resources (governmental sources, in-kind community inputs, etc.).

To implement the updated safeguarding plan, the budget for the next reporting period (2020-2023) of the Hezhen Yimakan storytelling is as follows:
- Government resources
(1) The representative bearers of Yimakan storytelling will be subsidized to ensure their basic livelihood and fulfill their transmission obligation. An annual allocation of 60,000 RMB will be provided, totaling 240,000 RMB in four years;
(2) A financial guarantee will be provided for the transmission activities in the Yimakan storytelling transmission and practice centers and WeChat groups, totaling 220,000 RMB;
(3) The preservation of Hezhen dialect will be continuously carried out. The Chinese and Hezhen bilingual teaching will be conducted in resource-based areas. The role of transmission and practice centers will be maximized to simultaneously teach Hezhen language while teaching Yimakan storytelling. Hezhen language and Yimakan storytelling will be fully applied on the minority language inheritance network, so as to push them to the whole world through a professional Internet platform. The budget totals one million RMB.
(4) The archives of representative bearers of Yimakan storytelling will be established. Data will be stored in four modules, namely text, picture, audio and video. Then they will be collected, filed, archived and shot by dedicated personnel. The budget totals 500,000 RMB.
(5) Bearers, trainees and Yimakan storytelling Art Troupes will be organized to enter communities, scenic spots, and campuses to carry out transmission, practice, exhibitions and publicity activities. The budget totals 1.4 million RMB.
(6) Academic activities will be carried out, including seminars and forums on Yimakan storytelling, and subject research. Research results will be published. The budget totals 800,000 RMB.
(7) The creation and rehearsal of Yimakan micro animations, myth dramas and other literary and artistic works, totaling 5 million RMB.
- Community investment
(8) 100 paintings of Yimakan story series will be completed. Communities will raise 120,000 RMB for them.
To implement the above safeguarding plan, national financial department will allocate 9.16 million RMB. Communities will invest 120,000 RMB. The budget totals 9.28 million RMB.

C.4.

Community participation

Please describe how communities, groups and individuals, as well as relevant non-governmental organizations have been involved, including in terms of gender roles, in updating the safeguarding plan, and how they will be involved in its implementation.

The people in Hezhen communities attach great importance to the safeguarding and transmission of Yimakan storytelling. They are actively participating in the updating and implementation of various safeguarding plans organized by governments and cultural departments, maximizing the advantages of communities, groups and individuals, independently carrying out respective transmission activities, and implementing specific safeguarding measures. For example, the Hezhen ethnic groups in Zhuaji Town, Fuyuan County spontaneously established Yimakan storytelling transmission and practice centers. The governments of Jiejinkou Township, Bacha Township and Sipai Township and Aoqi Village Committee provided free transmission and practice venues and necessary financial support. Jiamusi Vocational Education Group also provided free transmission and practice venues.
Some NGOs in Tongjiang City, Jiamusi City and other places, together with local governments, have carried out research, collation and archives of Yimakan storytelling database as planned. They have promised to continuously participate in the implementation of future safeguarding measures, and contribute to the intergenerational transmission of Yimakan storytelling. Other NGOs, such as the Hezhen Research Society, Jiejinkou and Bacha Central School, have actively compiled Hezhen language teaching materials. They have opened bilingual teaching courses for the Hezhen and Chinese languages and achieved remarkable effects. To promote the popularization of Yimakan storytelling, cultural enterprises have actively invested in the safeguarding of Yimakan storytelling. Jiamusi Mahua Hezhen Fishskin Culture Co., Ltd. invested a total of 727,000 RMB in the painting of comics for Yimakan story series with fish skin as the material, as well as the creation and exhibition of fishskin paintings for Yimakan stories.
Due to changes in social structure and division of labor, the male-dominant Yimakan yimakanqi mafa has gradually broken the gender restrictions for Yimakan storytelling transmission, and females are becoming the major force of transmission and practice. Currently, among 84 representative bearers, females account for 75%. Yan Qin and other female bearers unanimously expressed that as the bearers of Yimakan and Hezhen cultures, females are also shouldering great responsibilities. They should address difficulties and make due efforts to promote Hezhen ethnic culture, transmit and safeguard Yimakan storytelling. Eight representative bearers have promised to continuously participate in the implementation of the safeguarding plan and to cultivate more outstanding bearers, as conditions permit. Lu Yanhua (female), a representative bearer in Raohe County, is keen on the transmission of Yimakan storytelling, thus making her one of the best. She was invited to work in the Center for Safeguarding of ICH of the county in 2017. It has brought her a chance to engage in in-depth study and transmission of Yimakan storytelling. She said, “It was Yimakan storytelling that transformed me from an ordinary woman into an ethnic cultural worker. Not only did I earn income, but also I contributed to the cultural undertaking of the ethnicity. More importantly, I cherish Yimakan storytelling and the Hezhen culture.”
The Branch of Studies on the Hezhen People under the Society of Ethno-national Studies in Heilongjiang Province, the Center for the Safeguarding of ICH of Heilongjiang Province, Tongjiang Hezhen Ethnicity Association and other NGOs are actively communicating and cooperating with cultural authorities. They are compiling teaching materials while engaging in academic research on Yimakan storytelling. They have published a collection of works in an effort to promote and disseminate Yimakan storytelling, and promised to devote themselves to the safeguarding and research in a long run.

C.5.

Institutional context

Please report on the institutional context for the local management and safeguarding of the element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, including:

  1. a. the competent body(ies) involved in its management and/or safeguarding;
  2. b. the organization(s) of the community or group concerned with the element and its safeguarding.

a. the competent body(ies) involved in its management and/or safeguarding:
- Governing bodies
Heilongjiang Provincial Culture and Tourism Department;
- Competent authorities:
Bureau of Culture, Radio, TV, Film, Press and Publication, Tongjiang City, Heilongjiang Province
Bureau of Culture, Radio, TV, Film, Press and Publication, Raohe County, Shuangyashan City, Heilongjiang Province
Bureau of Culture, Radio, TV, Film, Press and Publication, Jiamusi City, Heilongjiang Province
Bureau of Culture, Radio, TV, Film, Press and Publication, Suburb of Jiamusi City, Heilongjiang Province
Bureau of Culture, Radio, TV, Film, Press and Publication, Fuyuan City, Heilongjiang Province
Government of Sipai Hezhen Ethnic Township, Shuangyashan City, Heilongjiang Province
- the organization responsible for safeguarding the element:
Center for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Heilongjiang Province;
- local organizations responsible for the safeguarding:
Center for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage, Tongjiang City, Heilongjiang Province
Center for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage, Jiamusi City, Heilongjiang Province
Center for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Suburb of Jiamusi City, Heilongjiang Province
Center for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Raohe County, Shuangyashan City, Heilongjiang Province
Center for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage, Fuyuan City, Heilongjiang Province
b. the organization(s) of the community or group concerned with the element and its safeguarding
Cultural Center of Jiejinkou Hezhen Ethnic Township, Tongjiang City, Heilongjiang Province
Cultural Center of Bacha Hezhen Ethnic Township, Tongjiang City, Heilongjiang Province
Village Committee of Hezhen Ethnic Village of Aoqi Township in the suburb of Jiamusi City, Heilongjiang Province
Cultural Center of Sipai Hezhen Ethnic Township, Raohe County, Shuangyashan City, Heilongjiang Province
Yimakan Storytelling Transmission and Practice Center of Jiejinkou Hezhen Ethnic Township, Tongjiang City, Heilongjiang Province
Yimakan Storytelling Transmission and Practice Center of Bacha Hezhen Ethnic Township, Tongjiang City, Heilongjiang Province
Yimakan Storytelling Transmission and Practice Center, Tongjiang City, Heilongjiang Province
Yimakan Storytelling Transmission and Practice Center of Aoqi Hezhen Ethnic Village in the suburb of Jiamusi City, Heilongjiang Province
Yimakan Storytelling Transmission and Practice Center of Sipai Hezhen Ethnic Township, Raohe County, Shuangyashan City, Heilongjiang Province
Yimakan Storytelling Transmission and Practice Center, Fuyuan City, Heilongjiang Province
Yimakan Art Troupe of Hezhen Ethnicity, Tongjiang City, Heilongjiang Province
Yimakan Art Troupe of Hezhen Ethnicity, Raohe County, Shuangyashan City, Heilongjiang Province
Yimakan Art Troupe of Hezhen Ethnicity, Fuyuan City, Heilongjiang Province
Branch of Studies on the Hezhen under the Society of Ethno-national Studies in Heilongjiang Province
Tongjiang Hezhen Research Society of Heilongjiang Province
Hezhen Research Society, Raohe County, Shuangyashan City, Heilongjiang Province

D. Participation of communities in preparing this report

Describe the measures taken to ensure the widest possible participation of the communities, groups and, where applicable, individuals concerned as well as relevant non-governmental organizations during the process of preparing this report.

In July 2019, the Heilongjiang Provincial Culture and Tourism Department organized and established a leadership group for this period report, and convened the 2019 Preparatory Conference for the Period Report of Hezhen Yimakan Storytelling. The Center for the Safeguarding of ICH of Heilongjiang Province was entrusted to work with five communities to carry out comprehensive investigation and research and submit status reports on the implementation of the safeguarding plan of Yimakan storytelling and related issues. In September, the safeguarding organization combined the basic information, opinions and suggestions provided by communities, and promptly submitted a preliminary research report, which covered the safeguarding achievements, experience, problems and related data in the past four years. In October, the Heilongjiang Provincial Culture and Tourism Department organized experts to discuss the achievements and problems in safeguarding the element in recent years. Rational opinions and proposals put forward by experts and scholars from scientific research institutions such as Heilongjiang Provincial Academy of Social Sciences and Harbin Normal University were included in this report.
In the process of drafting this report, relevant associations and groups including six Yimakan storytelling transmission and practice centers, the Branch of Studies on the Hezhen under the Society of Ethno-national Studies in Heilongjiang Province, Cultural Center of Hezhen Ethnic Township, and China Hezhen Website, have actively participated in the preparation of the report. They have focused on the opinions of representative bearers and young trainees. Ms. Qi Yanhua, former curator of the Tongjiang Mass Art Museum, served as a representative of women and provided relevant materials for the performance report.
The preparation of the report in this reporting period was conducted with the prior knowledge and consent of relevant communities, groups, representative bearers, and young practitioners. The period report was finalized on November 16, 2019 after soliciting opinions from all parties.

E. Signature on behalf of the State Party

The report should be signed by an official empowered to do so on behalf of the State, and should include his or her name, title and the date of submission.

Name

XIE Jinying

Title

Director General, Bureau of International Exchanges and Cooperation, Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the People’s Republic of China

Date

11-12-2020

Signature

Upload signed version in PDF


Periodic Report (USL)

A. Cover sheet

A.1.

State Party

Name of State Party

China

A.2.

Date of deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession

This information is available online.

2004-12-02

A.3.

Element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List that is the subject of this report

Name of element

Wooden movable-type printing of China

Inscribed in

2010

Submitting State(s)

China

A.4.

Reporting period covered by this report

Please indicate the period covered by this report.

01-01-2016 - 31-12-2018

A.5.

Other elements inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, if any

Please list all other elements from your country inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, together with the year of inscription; for multinational elements, please indicate the other States concerned.

Hezhen Yimakan storytelling (2011)
Meshrep (2010)
Qiang New Year festival (2009)
Traditional design and practices for building Chinese wooden arch bridges (2009)
Traditional Li textile techniques: spinning, dyeing, weaving and embroidering (2009)
Watertight-bulkhead technology of Chinese junks (2010)

A.6.

Executive summary of the report

Please provide an executive summary of the report that will allow general readers to understand the current status of the element, any positive or negative impacts of inscription, the implementation of safeguarding measures during the reporting period and their possible update for the following years.

According to relevant historical records, movable-type printing technique was invented in the Northern Song Dynasty (1041-1048 AD). Nowadays, with the popularity of modern printing technology, the viability of the element has been seriously endangered, and its transmission has been in a predicament. The inscription of the element on the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding in November 2010 (Decision 5.COM 5.2) has triggered discussions among Chinese people about intangible cultural heritage and their viability in the modern times. In this process, the public become increasingly aware of the importance of safeguarding intangible cultural heritage to the promotion of cultural diversity and human creativity. In particular, the communities, groups, and individuals concerned renewed their understanding of the element and its related folk custom and cultural space. The solidarity and cultural identification of the local communities were strengthened, and the visibility of the element and that of intangible cultural heritage in general were also promoted.
During the last reporting period, the safeguarding measures implemented and their effectiveness were confirmed by the Committee (Decision12.COM 8.c.7). It was pointed out in this Decision that, through establishing audio-visual documentation, providing capital support for bearers and practicing institutions, the State Party made positive efforts in safeguarding the element. In the current reporting period, in order to ensure the viability of the element, joint efforts were made between relevant communities, groups and individuals, and the competent bodies and Chinese governments at all levels. The safeguarding measures were implemented in deep cooperation among the above-mentioned stakeholders:
(1) The bearers were encouraged to take on apprentices to activate the internal vitality of the traditional modes of transmission. The neighboring communities were also mobilized and encouraged to be involved in practicing the movable-type printing technique. At present, 17 bearers commanding the whole process of the technique were identified as representative bearers. In addition, the number of practitioners directly involved in the transmission of the technique was about 240. Compared with the situation before the inscription, the number of bearers commanding the whole process of the technique was increased by 15, and the number of practitioners directly involved in the practice of the technique was increased by more than 130 (including 23 females).
(2) In response to Decision 12.COM 8.c.7, in strengthening the role of school education and transmission bases in the transmission of the element, relevant stakeholders continued to support three teaching bases (Kaiyuan Vocational Secondary School, Rui’an Pingyangkeng School and Rui’an Ma’anshan Experimental Primary School) and one transmission center (Wang Chuanqiao Wooden Movable-type Printing Handicraft Studio) during the reporting period, which aimed at ensuring the intergenerational transmission of the element through formal and informal education. In addition, Kaiyuan Vocational Secondary School was included in the second batch of the “Zhejiang List of ICH Teaching and Transmission Bases”, and was proclaimed “Zhejiang Advanced Unit for Popularization and Education of Traditional Culture”. Rui’an Movable-type Printing Association was included in the second batch of “ICH Safeguarding-through-Production Base” in Zhejiang Province.
(3) Such non-governmental organizations as Rui’an Movable-type Printing Association carried out training sessions for bearers and practitioners to promote the teaching and exchange of the technique. Two training workshops were respectively held in 2016 and 2018, with 38 apprentices in total participated. The Association continued to engage in the business printing editions of ancient books since 2015. By using the movable-type printing technique, it also printed important ancient books such as Doha and etc. The viability of the element was promoted through the market-oriented operation and management.
(4) The Movable-type Printing Culture Exhibition Hall was repaired and expanded to accommodate richer exhibits, objects and tools. Safeguarding measures regarding the preservation of ancient buildings in Dongyuan was confirmed and implemented. The Dongyuan Village was further developed into a community-based traditional cultural transmission base. As a result, the visibility of the element was promoted, the public’s recognition and understanding over it and its related cultural space and folklore were deepened, more and more people were summoned and became voluntarily involved in the safeguarding of ICH in general.

A.7.

Contact person for correspondence

Provide the name, address and other contact information of the person responsible for correspondence concerning the report.

Title (Ms/Mr, etc.)

Mr

Family name

ZHENG

Given name

Jianjun

Institution/position

Center for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage in Rui’an City, Zhejiang Province, China / Directorhanges and Cooperation Ministry of Culture and Tourism of China

Address

FL-4 Cultural Center, No. 8 Jiefang Zhonglu Road, Rui’an City, Zhejiang Province, China, 325200

Telephone number

0086-577-65877058

E-mail address

rasfy@sina.com

Other relevant information

www.muhuozi.com (website for Wooden movable-type printing of China)

B. Status of element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List

Refer to the nomination file or to previous reports, if any, as the basis for reporting on the current status of the element, and report only on relevant changes since the date of inscription on the List or since the previous report. Nomination files, specific timetables and earlier reports, if any, are available at https://ich.unesco.org or from the Secretariat, upon request.

The State Party shall pay special attention to the role of gender and shall endeavour to ensure the widest possible participation of the communities, groups and, where applicable, individuals concerned as well as relevant non-governmental organizations during the process of preparing this report, and is asked to describe how it has done so in point D below.

B.1.

Social and cultural functions

Please explain the social and cultural functions and meanings of the element today, within and for its community, the characteristics of the bearers and practitioners, and any specific roles or categories of persons with special responsibilities towards the element, among others. Attention should be given to any relevant changes related to inscription criterion U.1 (‘the element constitutes intangible cultural heritage as defined in Article 2 of the Convention’).

Movable-type printing technique is considered by the communities, groups, and individuals concerned as an important part of their cultural heritage. For the bearers, it is not only the technique transmitted from generation to generation within family, but also the important means for livelihood. The technique is mainly used in the compiling and printing of clan genealogies in local communities to record the history and kinship of their families. Therefore, as the carrier of the local history and culture, the movable-type printing technique not only provides technical support for the transmission of local culture, but also functions as an important media to maintain the inter-generational connection among the community members. Having spread to other areas in China, the element plays an important role in the social and cultural development of these places, and becomes an important cultural carrier for different groups to understand and recognize their history.
The essence of movable-type printing technique originates from the process where certain cultural and artistic concepts are updated and transmitted, and from the process where a scientific and practical system of technique is passed down from one generation to the next. Although the technique system has relatively fixed patterns and matured production processes, there is no standardized working models to be followed, which provides enough room for different communities, groups, and individuals to give full play to their creativity. The technique is mainly transmitted from bearers to their apprentices within families. A special ceremony for taking on apprentices is strictly abided. Individuals should be recognized by the local community before becoming a bearer in the system of intergenerational transmission. Decision 12.COM 8.c.7 pointed out that, the role of bearers in the development of the element should be emphasized and attached with great importance. Craftsmen engaged in the technique are not only experts of traditional printing techniques, but also bearers of Chinese genealogical culture. They are responsible for the editing, printing, and binding of different clan genealogies. Therefore, they are also known as the “Masters of Genealogy”. Generally speaking, women practitioners are weaker in strength, so they mainly work on the typesetting, printing, and binding, and so on. Wu Shumei, the daughter-in-law of Wang Chuanqiao, is a representative bearer of the element. Since 2017, she has overcome physical limitations of the female and started to learn engraving and other techniques used to be practiced mainly by male bearers. Through constant efforts, these female bearers have basically grasped the whole process of wooden movable-type printing technique and become an important force among the representative bearers of the element.
At present, the communities in which the element is being practiced and transmitted include the old areas of Dongyuan Village of Gaolou Town and Xiqian Village of Caocun Town in Rui’an City, as well as some adjacent and new areas such as Pingyang County. In these communities, representative bearers such as Wang Chaohui, Lin Chuyin, Wang Chuanqiao and Wang Zhiren continue to work on the printing, revision, compiling and preservation of clan genealogies for local communities. The above-mentioned representative bearers have carried out regular teaching activities on movable-type printing technique in middle and primary schools. By teaching the historical and cultural knowledge associated with the element to the students, these representative bearers continue to play an indispensable role in the safeguarding and transmission of the element.

B.2.

Assessment of its viability and current risks

Please describe the current level of viability of the element, particularly the frequency and extent of its practice, the strength of traditional modes of transmission, the demographics of practitioners and audiences and its sustainability. Please also identify and describe the threats, if any, to the element's continued transmission and enactment and describe the severity and immediacy of such threats, giving particular attention to any strengthening or weakening of the element’s viability subsequent to inscription.

Current level of viability of the element
(1) Within the communities where the element is viable, the element still functions culturally in commemorating ancestors, transmitting history, and continuing identification. Thus, there are still comparatively great demands in the markets of Zhejiang, Fujian, and other places. For example, bearers in Dongyuan Village received more than 150 orders in 2016. The payment for these orders relied on the scale of the clan genealogy, and the annual income of a bearer was about 60,000 to 80,000 RMB, which was slightly increased and close to the average annual salary of a local skilled worker. This is in a sense helpful to the stabilization of local bearers and to the ensuring of the viability of the element.
(2) After inscription, the local communities, NGOs, and governmental institutions actively supported folk clans to conduct research on their genealogies, aiming at expanding the range for the application of movable-type printing technique. As a result, the market demand for the technique was in fact increased. In practice, community members also voluntarily used the technique to compile and print clan genealogies to ensure the frequency of its practice, thus ensuring the actual function of the element in the communal cultural system.
(3) In addition to the compiling and printing of clan genealogies, the publication of more ancient books further increased the practice frequency of the element and promoted its viability. For example, the local governments entrusted the Movable-type Printing Association to edit and publish 26 types of ancient books. Relevant communities were encouraged by the initiative and sought to sustain the cultural tradition through regular compiling and printing clan genealogies. As a result, a total of 31,000 books (as of December 2018, 1,000 to 3,000 copies for each type) were printed and for sale in bookshops. Some of the books were presented as gifts in foreign exchange. This further expanded the range of application for the movable-type printing technique.
(4) Representative bearers actively developed souvenirs related to the wooden movable-type printing technique, which effectively increased the number of related bearers and practitioners. For example, Wang Chuanqiao founded his Wooden Movable-type Printing Handicraft Studio in Dongyuan Village in 2013, which not only increased the number of apprentices and practice frequency of the element, but also raised the income of relevant practitioners and bearers.
Current risks to the element
(1) The traditional craftsmanship is under the impact of the modern technology and struggles in the contemporary social context. Considering the cost, many clans gave up movable-type printing technique for the relatively cost-saving computer digital printing in revising and compiling clan genealogies. As a result, the traditional market for the technique shrank and was occupied by the new technology. For example, in the past five years, more than 20 clan genealogies in Rui’an were printed with the computer digital printing, which was about 5% higher in number compared to the previous level.
(2) Movable-type printing technique is of complicated process with high technical contents. The bearer should not only master certain knowledge about the history and culture of the element, but also learn and practice brush handwriting of Chinese calligraphy and hand-operated engraving techniques. It usually takes at least two years for an apprentice to command the whole set of movable-type printing technique. Due to the utilitarian oriented values and rapid rhythm of development in modern society, together with the lack of incentives and securing mechanism, the young people are generally not interested in the safeguarding of the element.
(3) At present, movable-type printing technique is mostly used in rural areas. Although the payment is higher than before, it still remains at a comparatively low level. Therefore, some craftsmen need to do part-time jobs, or even change career, which restrains the sustainable development of the element.
(4) Currently, there are 17 representative bearers who master the whole set of movable-type printing technique (four have passed away since last reporting period). All of them are middle-aged or elderly people above 50 years old. The viability of the element may be further endangered in the future.

B.3.

Implementation of safeguarding measures

Please report on the safeguarding measures described in the nomination file, and previous report, if any. Describe how they have been implemented and how they have substantially contributed to the safeguarding of the element during the reporting period, taking note of external or internal constraints such as limited resources. Include, in particular, information on the measures taken to ensure the viability of the element by enabling the community to continue to practise and transmit it. Include the following detailed information concerning the implementation of the set of safeguarding measures or safeguarding plan:

B.3.a. Objectives and results

Indicate what primary objective(s) were addressed and what concrete results were attained during the reporting period.

(1) The safeguarding of the bearers: to continue the existing national mechanism of four-level (county, municipal, provincial and national levels) identification and recognition of representative bearers. A total of 17 representative bearers of movable-type printing technique were identified (including one departed bearer). About 240 people directly participated in the practice, including over 50 females (one of them was qualified to be identified as the representative bearer). Female practitioners played important roles in the transmission of the element, which was a positive signal for its sustainable development. In addition, Dongyuan Movable-type Printing Company in Rui’an continued to support relevant bearers for the production, practice and transmission of the element, and to improve its practice frequency through market-oriented management and sale.
(2) Promoting visibility: to continue supporting Rui’an Movable-type Printing Association to construct two teaching bases for the transmission of the element. Rui’an Dongyuan Movable-type Printing Culture Exhibition Hall was renovated and enlarged, and relevant historical antiquities, visual materials and on-spot demonstration sessions were added to the existing layout. As the Transmission Base of ICH and the Education Base of Traditional Culture in Wenzhou City, the Hall housed a series of exhibitions, which not only contributed to the promotion of the visibility of the element, but to that of the ICH in general among the public.
(3) Documentation: since 2016, on the basis of the general investigation over the communities and bearers concerned, the cultural eco-environment of the element, editions of ancient books, and etc., the modern digital technology was applied to record and preserve the core factors of the element such as the printing processe, folklore, taboos and tools. 486 G of videos, 6,560 M of photos, 308 M of texts, and more than 120 pieces of other materials were collected.
(4) Institutional Support: The Rui’an Center for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage was directly in charge of safeguarding the element. By clarifying relevant rights, obligations, and responsibilities, the Steering Group for Safeguarding Movable-type Printing Technique in Rui’an played a coordinative role ensuring the effective implementation and supervision of relevant safeguarding measures.
(5) Legislation: The Intangible Cultural Heritage Law of the People’s Republic of China, and the Regulations on Safeguarding ICH of Zhejiang Province, provided a legal basis for the implementation of the safeguarding measures proposed. Meanwhile, based on the local context, Rui’an City also drew up the specific guidelines to facilitate the safeguarding of the element, which substantially based the safeguarding work on the laws or regulations.

B.3.b. Safeguarding activities

List the key activities that were carried out during this reporting period in order to achieve these expected results. Please describe the activities in detail and note their effectiveness or any problems encountered in implementing them.

Focusing on bearers and increasing the frequency of practice
(1) The representative bearers were identified on the basis of the recommendation of the communities concerned. In order to improve their income and stimulate their enthusiasm to practice and transmit the element, governments at different levels provided financial support for the bearers. In addition, some assistance was also provided in terms of venues, reduction or exemption of taxes, financial loans, and administrative examination and approval.
(2) General investigation on the element was organized, and archives were established with modern multimedia technology. The viability of movable-type printing technique was evaluated by experts with the participation of the communities and bearers concerned. Through the complete documentation incorporating audio, visual, and textual materials, the historical development, the status of transmission, as well as other important information, were further confirmed.
(3) Training workshops were organized at the education and transmission base every two years. The transmission of the element and the training of the next generation of masters were centered around the representative bearers concerned. Rui’an Dongyuan Movable-type Printing Culture Exhibition Hall and Wang Chuanqiao Wooden Movable-type Printing Handicraft Studio organized a number of transmission activities. Meanwhile, they developed tourist souvenirs using cultural factors of the element, which in a way created opportunities for the apprentices to practice. Moreover, the income of relevant bearers was correspondingly increased, and more job opportunities were created for the local communities.
(4) Through the cooperation with the local government, taking advantage of various state-oriented projects to publish hard copies of ancient books, the practice frequency of the element, as well as its relevance to the social needs, were promoted. 15 important ancient books, including the Art of War, were reprinted since 2011. This not only provided an opportunity for the bearers and practitioners concerned to practice the element, but also promoted the influence and visibility of the element.
Dissemination and education
(1) From June to July every year, bearers were organized to participate in on-site activities on Rui’an Cultural Heritage Day to demonstrate the whole process of movable-type printing technique. They were also organized to participate in the ICH exhibition and exchange activities in other places, such as the thematic exhibition “Cultural Transmission and Future Prospect - Diversified Interaction between Chinese Movable-Type Printing and Modern Chinese Characters Ink Painting” held in Australia in December 2018, which further extended the influence of the element and attracted more attention from the public. On-site demonstrations by bearers and experiencing projects for visitors were added as well, in order to promote movable-type printing technique in the society.
(2) Various kinds of activities to introduce movable-type printing technique into campuses were organized, and teaching bases for the transmission of movable-type printing technique were established at middle and primary schools. Popular textbooks such as Movable-type Printing Technique in Dongyuan of Rui’an and Movable-type Printing Technique in Rui’an were adopted in the teaching of wooden movable-type printing technique at middle and primary schools, which improved the awareness of the importance of safeguarding ICH among young people.
(3) More than 200 pieces of news were released in different media. 10 thematic TV documentaries were broadcast since 2015, giving extensive introduction and dissemination of the element. This had a good social impact in the public and further strengthened the public opinion to support the safeguarding of the element.
(4) Through platforms and occasions such as the national Cultural and Natural Heritage Day, the UNESCO’s 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage and relevant national laws and regulations were highlighted and introduced. As a result, the awareness of the importance of safeguarding intangible cultural heritage among the public was promoted. The attention of the public was further attracted to the safeguarding of the element and ICH in general.
(5) To explore the sustainable development of the element and improve the visibility of the element among the academic community, and to provide intellectual support for the theoretical research and safeguarding of the element, the “China Rui’an Movable-type Printing Technique Seminar” was continually held. Coordinated by China Movable-type Printing Technique Expert Committee, extensive cooperation with colleges and folk-art associations was established to intellectually support the long-term safeguarding and development of the element.
Problems to be solved
(1) Lack of investment, the form of fund-raising remains simplex. Since the financial support for the safeguarding mainly comes from government investment, diversified fund-raising channels need to be explored. In addition to government investment, at the level of community and civil organization, their ways of contribution to the safeguarding of the element rely on providing human power or in-kind support. At present, only a few representative bearers like Wang Chuanqiao have the capability to raise funds on their own by developing and selling handicrafts or souvenirs related to the element. Other bearers can only rely on limited social and government support to continue their transmission and practice.
(2) The local competent bodies lack of relevant experiences in safeguarding the element, and the measures taken remain simplex. Currently, progress has been made by organizing thematic exhibitions of representative works for relevant bearers at the local exhibition halls and museums, which to an extent has improved the bearers’ income and stimulated their enthusiasm in the safeguarding efforts. However, influence still remains insignificant due to limited exposure. For the next stage, more funds should be provided in collecting the representative works of bearers and the size and frequency of the thematic exhibition should be increased. In addition, government could explore more diversified safeguarding methodology such as: drawing up relevant rules and setting up a rewarding mechanism to encourage social organizations to invest in the safeguarding; providing positions in the government for those apprentices of superb skills.
(3) The safeguarding measures lack of diversified methodologies, and the sustainable development of the element lacks of institutional guarantee. For young bearers (most of them are apprentices of identified bearers), they could hardly be identified as representative bearers due to the limited time in practicing the technique and their age. Therefore, it is difficult to work out the standard or procedure to provide them with financial aids (as the compensation for their work), which results in a fact that less young people especially the females are attracted to the safeguarding of the element. In addition, there is still no corresponding mechanism to encourage and guarantee the folk organizations (mainly the Clan Genealogy Compiling Committee) to use the element in the compiling and printing of clan genealogies.

B.3.c. Participation of communities, groups or individuals in the safeguarding activities

Describe how communities, groups or, if appropriate, individuals as well as relevant non-governmental organizations have effectively participated, including in terms of gender roles, in the safeguarding measures. Describe the role of the implementing organization or body (name, background, etc.) and the human resources that were available for implementing safeguarding activities.

Rui’an Movable-type Printing Association is a NGO founded voluntarily by the bearers and practitioners of the wooden movable-type printing technique. Currently, it has more than 130 members. Taking advantage of its large number of members, the association took many measures for the safeguarding and transmission of the element. For example, it purchased the raw materials and used the wooden movable-type technique to print hard copies of ancient books. It also organized activities to enhance the internal communication among the bearers. In January 2017, the Association was listed on the second batch of “ICH Safeguarding-through-Production Base” in Zhejiang.
The community member Wu Xiaohuai has been engaged in the research of wooden movable-type printing technique for a long time. In 2017, he was entrusted by the government to lead the decoration of the newly built Dongyuan Movable-type Printing Culture Exhibition Hall. Through the event, the safeguarding efforts and research results of the element were fully demonstrated and represented in visual, textual and in-kind forms.
The website of movable-type printing technique in China (www.muhuozi.com) hosted by Rui’an Movable-type Printing Association maintains normal operation. It covers 10 columns, including “introduction to the association”, “latest news”, “history of the technique”, “feature of the technique”, “business scope”, “bearers”, “exhibition and impact”, “transmission and safeguarding”, “members of the association” and “message board”. The website continues to play an important role in the dissemination and promotion of the element.
The members of China Movable-type Printing Technique Expert Committee mainly consist of the members from the Chinese Folk Literature and Art Association. All of them are local experts, who are responsible for the evaluation of ICH, as well as facilitating the identification of representative bearers and the transmission of the element.
From 2015 to 2018, a total of 126,000 visitors and professionals from the country and abroad visited the Rui’an Dongyuan Movable-type Printing Culture Exhibition Hall. The development of cultural tourism and creative souvenirs, provided opportunities for the apprentices to practice, thus improving bearers’ income and creating more jobs for the local community.
As competent bodies, the Bureau of Culture, Radio, TV, Film, Press and Publication in Rui’an City, Zhejiang Province and the Center for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Rui’an City, Zhejiang Province, play a coordinative role in the implementation of the safeguarding measures. Nearly 48,000 people from relevant communities, groups, government at all levels and competent bodies, are involved in the safeguarding of the element.

B.3.d. Timetable

Indicate in a timetable when each activity was implemented.

Governmental resources
2015-2018: filming documentaries of movable-type printing technique (30,000 RMB)
2015-2018: collecting information and images of movable-type printing technique (20,000 RMB)
2015-2018: financial aid for representative bearers (300,000 RMB)
2015-2018: making brochures for the publicity of movable-type printing technique (50,000 RMB)
2015-2018: financial aid for bearers (140,000 RMB)
2015-2018: participating in cultural fairs and other domestic activities (90,000 RMB)
2015-2018: financial aid for transmission of books made by the Movable-type Printing Technique (95,000 RMB)
April 2016: organizing the movable-type printing technique competition and evaluation of apprentices training (10,000 RMB)
2016-2017: building the new movable-type printing technology exhibition hall (4,100,000 RMB)
2017-2018: renovating the old movable-type printing technology exhibition hall (1,500,000 RMB)
2016-2018: purchasing equipment for the transmission of movable-type printing technique (180,000 RMB)
2016-2018: purchasing equipment for establishing archive and database (100,000 RMB)
2017: organizing the first Wooden Movable-Type Printing Culture and Tourism Festival (180,000 RMB)
Total: 6,795,000 RMB
Other resources
2016-2018: organizing transmission and safeguarding activities by Rui’an Movable-type Printing Association (160,000 RMB raised by members)
2016-2018: establishing teaching bases and opening training classes for the transmission of the element (50,000 RMB; Kaiyuan Secondary Vocational School and Rui’an Movable-type Printing Association provided the venue, and students provided tools)
2016-2018: organizing bearers to participate in various kinds of transmission and practice activities (40,000 RMB; bearers participated in the transmission and practice activities, and relevant communities provided the venue)
2016-2018: printing hard copies of ancient books like Doha and clan genealogies with wooden movable-type printing technique (1,180,000 RMB invested by relevant social resources; groups and individuals provided human power and technical resources)
2017: organizing movable-type printing exhibitions and safeguarding seminars (20,000 RMB funded by relevant groups)
2016-2018: organizing education activities introducing ICH into schools, communities and villages (80,000 RMB; schools and communities provided venues and human power, and bearers participated in the publicity and education activities)
2016-2018: compiling and publishing Movable-type Printing Technique textbooks (20,000 RMB funded by relevant groups)
2016-2018: supporting bearers for the transmission and recreation of the element (50,000 RMB funded by relevant groups)
2016-2018: collecting the tools and works of movable-type printing technique (250,000 RMB, integrated resources from the government and society)
Total: 1,850,000
Central government financial support
2016-2018: competent bodies from the central government allocated a total of 300,000 RMB to safeguard the element.

B.3.e. Budget expenditures

Provide the detailed amounts of the funds used for the implementation of each activity (if possible, in US dollars), identifying the funding source for each (governmental sources, in-kind community inputs, etc.).

Governmental resources
2015-2018: filming documentaries of movable-type printing technique (30,000 RMB)
2015-2018: collecting information and images of movable-type printing technique (20,000 RMB)
2015-2018: financial aid for representative bearers (300,000 RMB)
2015-2018: making brochures for the publicity of movable-type printing technique (50,000 RMB)
2015-2018: financial aid for bearers (140,000 RMB)
2015-2018: participating in cultural fairs and other domestic activities (90,000 RMB)
2015-2018: financial aid for transmission of books made by the Movable-type Printing Technique (95,000 RMB)
April 2016: organizing the movable-type printing technique competition and evaluation of apprentices training (10,000 RMB)
2016-2017: building the new movable-type printing technology exhibition hall (4,100,000 RMB)
2017-2018: renovating the old movable-type printing technology exhibition hall (1,500,000 RMB)
2016-2018: purchasing equipment for the transmission of movable-type printing technique (180,000 RMB)
2016-2018: purchasing equipment for establishing archive and database (100,000 RMB)
2017: organizing the first Wooden Movable-Type Printing Culture and Tourism Festival (180,000 RMB)
Total: 6,795,000 RMB
Other resources
2016-2018: organizing transmission and safeguarding activities by Rui’an Movable-type Printing Association (160,000 RMB raised by members)
2016-2018: establishing teaching bases and opening training classes for the transmission of the element (50,000 RMB; Kaiyuan Secondary Vocational School and Rui’an Movable-type Printing Association provided the venue, and students provided tools)
2016-2018: organizing bearers to participate in various kinds of transmission and practice activities (40,000 RMB; bearers participated in the transmission and practice activities, and relevant communities provided the venue)
2016-2018: printing hard copies of ancient books like Doha and clan genealogies with wooden movable-type printing technique (1,180,000 RMB invested by relevant social resources; groups and individuals provided human power and technical resources)
2017: organizing movable-type printing exhibitions and safeguarding seminars (20,000 RMB funded by relevant groups)
2016-2018: organizing education activities introducing ICH into schools, communities and villages (80,000 RMB; schools and communities provided venues and human power, and bearers participated in the publicity and education activities)
2016-2018: compiling and publishing Movable-type Printing Technique textbooks (20,000 RMB funded by relevant groups)
2016-2018: supporting bearers for the transmission and recreation of the element (50,000 RMB funded by relevant groups)
2016-2018: collecting the tools and works of movable-type printing technique (250,000 RMB, integrated resources from the government and society)
Total: 1,850,000
Central government financial support
2016-2018: competent bodies from the central government allocated a total of 300,000 RMB to safeguard the element.

B.3.f. Overall effectiveness of the safeguarding activities

Provide an overall assessment of the effectiveness of the activities undertaken to achieve the expected results and of the efficiency of the use of funds for implementing the activities. Please indicate how the activities contributed to achieving the results and whether other activities could have contributed better to achieving the same results. Also indicate whether the same results could have been achieved with less funding, whether the human resources available were appropriate and whether communities, groups and individuals could have been better involved.

(1) The rescuing recording and digital preservation of the element were successfully conducted, yielding fruitful achievements in documentation. A large amount of textual, visual, and audio information was collected and processed, especially the full records of the core components, technical process and characteristics, folk taboo and tools of the element, providing a solid basis of the thematic database under construction.
(2) The channels for raising funds are more diversified and fund utilization is more effectively supervised by all stakeholders. Governments at all levels, relevant communities, groups and bearers applied the safeguarding-through-production methodology, focusing mainly on printing works with the wooden movable-type printing technique. More than 100 clan genealogies or copies of ancient books were printed annually. Although different clans kept the tradition to revise their clan genealogies regularly for a long time, the revision of each clan varied in the period, range and quantity. Therefore, the channels for raising funds for the safeguarding of the element were diversified. When every time the clan genealogy was to be revised, a Council of Clan Elders would be established, which was responsible for managing and supervising the use of the fund to ensure its efficiency and avoid waste. In addition, the printed copies of clan genealogies needed to be examined by the Council, which in fact guaranteed the high quality of these copies.
(3) The number of bearers and practitioner increased. More people got involved in the safeguarding activities. Representative bearers are provided with financial aid and subsidies, as well as venues for transmission to stabilize the existing traditional transmission model and groups of bearers. Although the financial aid has been greatly increased, the effect is not satisfactory. It is suggested to further increase investment and subsidies in representative bearers.
(4) Through dissemination, education and popularization of the element, its visibility was correspondingly promoted. More and more people became known about the element. Currently, limited investment achieved satisfactory results. For the next step, this successful experience should be followed. In addition, measures such as introducing ICH into communities and schools, compiling local textbooks, publishing monographs, shooting films and documentaries, and etc., were proved effective in promoting the visibility of the element. Experiences as such indeed contributed to the awareness raising among the public, disseminating knowledge about the element, and creating a good atmosphere in the society. Nevertheless, attention should be paid to the exploration of new channels and methods in the dissemination of the element.
(5) The extensive participation of non-governmental industrial organizations and professional institutions has increased the efficiency in the comprehensive utilization of different resources. Institutes of higher learning and social organizations have participated in the safeguarding efforts by implementing various kinds of academic exchange and establishing the mechanism for providing scientific basis for safeguarding intangible cultural heritage. Although certain achievements have been made in the safeguarding work, we should still further sum up the experience and establish norms to ensure the targeted safeguarding and improve the efficiency in comprehensive utilization of different resources.

C. Update of the safeguarding measures

C.1.

Updated safeguarding plan

Please provide an update of the safeguarding plan included in the nomination file or in the previous report. In particular provide detailed information as follows:

  1. a. What primary objective(s) will be addressed and what concrete results will be expected?
  2. b. What are the key activities to be carried out in order to achieve these expected results? Describe the activities in detail and in their best sequence, addressing their feasibility.
  3. c. How will the State(s) Party(ies) concerned support the implementation of the updated safeguarding plan?

(1) To collect the representative works of bearers and organize thematic exhibitions at local exhibition halls and museums, and to promote the enthusiasm of bearers and increase their income. Dongyuan Movable-type Printing Culture Exhibition Hall has paid Wang Chaohui, Wang Chuanqiao, Wu Kuizhao and other bearers, for collecting their representative works exhibited in the new Dongyuan Movable-type Printing Culture Exhibition Hall. The Hall even keeps a regular and long-term session for them to present their works. This widely praised action attracts a large number of tourists, experts and scholars, and the exhibition even becomes an eye-catching event of the Hall. Meanwhile, Rui’an Museum also provided special funds and venues to organize exhibitions of the representative bearers’ works. These new efforts would not only enhance the influence and visibility of the element, but greatly stimulate the enthusiasm of the bearers and increase their income.
(2) To develop apprentice training mechanism, enlarge the team of bearers, and secure the dynamic transmission mode of the element. Movable-type printing technique training workshops will be organized every two years by Rui’an Center for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage and Rui’an Movable-Type Printing Association, aiming at enlarging the team of bearers. Each training session will last three months. Apprentices of representative bearers in Rui’an city, students from middle and primary schools who are willing to learn the technique, and teachers who teach movable-type printing classes in schools, will be the targeted audiences of the training. Representative bearers including Wang Chuanqiao and Wang Zhiren will serve as key lecturers for the demonstration of the whole process of the element including calligraphy, engraving, typesetting, printing and bookbinding. Rui’an Center for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage will also sign agreements with each representative bearer to take apprentice, stipulating that every representative must ensure at least one of their apprentices takes the training courses. Based on past experiences---the first training workshop (October 2016 - January 2017) had 20 participants and the second (July 2018 - October 2018) had 18 participants (including 11 middle and primary school students), this mechanism is proved effective and will be followed in the next stage of the implementation.
(3) To explore the possibility of promoting the dynamic transmission of the element through marketization. Wang Chuanqiao and his daughter-in-law successfully developed cultural creative products by combining wooden movable printing technique and block printing technique. Wang Fawan, the 34th generation of Dongyuan wooden movable-type printing technique, opened five experiencing centers in Dongyuan and Rui’an. These cases offer beneficiary experiences for the dynamic transmission of the element through marketization. Following the same idea, it is planned to develop relevant cultural creative products related to the element, and to promote their sales through internet. It is hoped that the overall profit of practicing the element will be increased, and the relevance of the element to the current social context will be strengthened through market- oriented operations.
(4) To explore the innovation to integrate three elements: movable-type printing, Zhima wood block printing technique and Pingzhi paper making technique, and to develop relevant handcrafts and artworks. The issue of the integration of the three elements extensively attracts the public’s attention and triggers comprehensive discussions at the local level. After months of efforts, Wang Chuanqiao and other representative bearers from Rui’an and Ouhai successfully printed ancient-style Wenzhou pictures on the pingzhi paper. Such case provides new scenario for the safeguarding of the movable-type printing technique. New ways of the creative integration of different ICH elements will be explored, which aims at enhancing the added value of relevant ICH products and ensuring the viability of relevant ICH elements.
(5) To provide institutional guarantee, including the rewarding and encouraging mechanism, for various stakeholders to be involved in the safeguarding of the element. Wenzhou and Rui’an municipal governments will ensure the implementation of relevant laws and regulations. For those bearers who pay their apprentices will be encouraged and rewarded by the local government. In addition, various social stakeholders will be encouraged to support and invest in the safeguarding of the element.
(6) Chinese governments at all levels will make greater efforts to safeguard the element. On the basis of more than 3,000,000 RMB the previous expenditure, it is planned to invest at least 300,000 RMB each year to ensure the transmission and development of the element.

C.2.

Timetable for future actitivies

Provide a timetable for the updated safeguarding plan (within a time-frame of approximately four years).

Governmental Resources: 1,700,000 RMB
2016-2020: holding three training workshops for wooden movable-type printing techniques (300,000 RMB)
2018-2023: financial subsidies for the young and middle-aged representative bearers (about 400,000RMB)
2018-2022: financial support for NGOs (such as the Clan Genealogy Council) relating to the safeguarding of the element (1,000,000 RMB)
Other Resources: 3,600,000 RMB
2018-2022: foundation of the integration of three elements:
Establishing a research institute (500,000 RMB)
Producing the Pingzhi paper (600,000 RMB)
Engraving creative paintings (500,000 RMB)
Organizing relevant exhibitions and sales (800,000 RMB)
2018-2022: establishing operating studios for the integration and development of wooden movable-type printing and block printing techniques; establishing research and experiencing centers of the element.
Total: 5,300,000 RMB

C.3.

Budget for future activities

Provide the estimates of the funds required for implementing the updated safeguarding plan (if possible, in US dollars), identifying any available resources (governmental sources, in-kind community inputs, etc.).

Governmental Resources: 1,700,000 RMB
2016-2020: holding three training workshops for wooden movable-type printing techniques (300,000 RMB)
2018-2023: financial subsidies for the young and middle-aged representative bearers (about 400,000RMB)
2018-2022: financial support for NGOs (such as the Clan Genealogy Council) relating to the safeguarding of the element (1,000,000 RMB)
Other Resources: 3,600,000 RMB
2018-2022: foundation of the integration of three elements:
Establishing a research institute (500,000 RMB)
Producing the Pingzhi paper (600,000 RMB)
Engraving creative paintings (500,000 RMB)
Organizing relevant exhibitions and sales (800,000 RMB)
2018-2022: establishing operating studios for the integration and development of wooden movable-type printing and block printing techniques; establishing research and experiencing centers of the element.
Total: 5,300,000 RMB

C.4.

Community participation

Please describe how communities, groups and individuals, as well as relevant non-governmental organizations have been involved, including in terms of gender roles, in updating the safeguarding plan, and how they will be involved in its implementation.

(1) The bearers concerned were actively engaged in the update and implementation of the safeguarding measures. Since 2015, the representative bearers Wang Chaohui, Lin Chuyin, Wang Chuanqiao and Wang Zhiren not only devoted themselves in transmission and safeguarding activities organized by the Teaching Base, but also actively participated in symposiums organized by communities, groups and government for the update of the safeguarding plans. Their proposal of prepaying subsidies for the bearers was adopted by the government. In particular, Wang Chuanqiao had been teaching his daughter-in-law the movable-type printing technique since 2015, who was able to master the whole set of techniques including the extremely difficult engraving technique in 2018. They were both involved in the fieldwork and symposium held in Zeya Town (Ouhai District, Wenzhou City), which aimed at exploring the integration of the three elements. Wang Chaohui, Lin Chuyin and Wang Chuanqiao promised to continue to participate in the implementation of the updated safeguarding plans. They will play active roles in the teaching sessions to involve more people into the transmission of the element. In addition, by searching for more orders and increasing the income through practicing the element, they will try their best to place the transmission of the element on a more solid economic basis.
(2) Communities and groups are the social and cultural foundation for the transmission of the element. Over the past three years, they were deeply involved in the safeguarding of the element in the following two aspects: 1) involvement in the update of the safeguarding plan on clan genealogies; 2) providing support and logistics for the training sessions. Taking Rui'an Movable-type Printing Association as a case, by taking the advantage of its large number of members and practitioners, it substantially promoted the implementation of the safeguarding and transmission plan: purchasing high-quality timbers for professionals to engrave the type matrix; holding annual meetings and thematic conferences to report on the status quo of the element and awarding outstanding bearers and craftsmen; ensuring the normal operation of Dongyuan Movable-Type Printing Co., Ltd., and taking in orders to print the copies of ancient books.
(3) Dongyuan Village, Pingyangkeng Town, Rui’an City actively cooperated with governments at all levels in the implementation of the safeguarding plan, by applying for more fund from the local government, improving the transportation conditions of the Village as a core area of the element, and creating a better living and working environment for the bearers concerned. Dongyuan Village and Rui'an Movable-type Printing Association promised they will continue to try their best to contribute to the safeguarding and transmission of the element. Zhejiang and Rui’an governments promised they will further strengthen the current safeguarding efforts; On the basis of the existing expenditure of 3,000,000 RMB, at least another 400,000 RMB special fund will be invested each year to ensure the transmission and development of the element.

C.5.

Institutional context

Please report on the institutional context for the local management and safeguarding of the element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, including:

  1. a. the competent body(ies) involved in its management and/or safeguarding;
  2. b. the organization(s) of the community or group concerned with the element and its safeguarding.

a. the competent bodies involved in its management and/or safeguarding
(1) Bureau of Culture, Radio, TV, Film, Press and Publication, Rui’an City, Zhejiang Province
(2) Center for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Rui’an City, Zhejiang Province
b. organizations of the community or group concerned with the element and its safeguarding
(1) Rui’an Movable-type Printing Association, Zhejiang Province
(2) Dongyuan Movable-type Printing Company, Rui’an City, Zhejiang Province
(3) China Movable-type Printing Culture Exhibition Hall, Dongyuan, Rui’an City, Zhejiang Province
(4) Wang Chuanqiao Wooden Movable-type Printing Handicraft Studio
(5) Kaiyuan Vocational Secondary School, Rui’an City, Zhejiang Province
(6) Ma‘anshan Experimental Primary School, Rui’an City, Zhejiang Province
(7) Pingyangkeng School, Rui’an City, Zhejiang Province
(8) China Movable-type Printing Technique Expert Committee

D. Participation of communities in preparing this report

Describe the measures taken to ensure the widest possible participation of the communities, groups and, where applicable, individuals concerned as well as relevant non-governmental organizations during the process of preparing this report.

(1) Relevant bearers offered the first-hand material needed for the current report. The report was drafted under the full participation of the bearers concerned, and their ideas and suggestions were respected and reflected in the report. For example, four representative bearers such as Wang Chaohui and Wang Chuanqiao attended the meetings organized by relevant organizations from April to May in 2018 for the preparation of the report. In October 2018, they also participated in the field research organized by the competent bodies of the element for the drafting of the report. In addition, they were deeply involved in the elaboration and update of the safeguarding measures proposed, and some of their suggestions and comments were adopted.
(2) The communities concerned played active roles in preparing the report. Relevant communities, groups, and individuals of the element, especially the villages, families and community members concerned provided necessary information needed for the drafting of the report. In 2016 and 2017, through close cooperation with the fieldworkers, they provided precious textual and visual information for the preparation of the report.
(3) Positive facilitation of governments at all levels and deep engagement of experts. Working groups for preparing the report were both established at Zhejiang Provincial Department of Culture, and Rui’an Municipal Bureau of Culture, Radio, TV, Film, Press and Publication. Meanwhile, relevant experts and report drafters were organized to conduct the thematic field research to collect necessary information. During April and May in 2018, Relevant symposiums were organized to discuss the drafting of the report. In October 2018, report drafters and experts were organized to visit several representative bearers and collect their comments over the revision of the report. All funds related to the process were provided by the concerned communities, groups and the local government. By organizing and coordinating relevant scholars and experts to conduct thematic field research, Zhejiang Provincial Center for the Safeguarding of ICH also provided professional assistance for the drafting of the report.

E. Signature on behalf of the State Party

The report should be signed by an official empowered to do so on behalf of the State, and should include his or her name, title and the date of submission.

Name

XIE Jinying

Title

Director General, Bureau of International Exchanges and Cooperation, Ministry of Culture and Tourism of the People’s Republic of China

Date

11-12-2020

Signature

Upload signed version in PDF


Periodic Report (USL)

A. Cover sheet

A.1.

State Party

Name of State Party

Latvia

A.2.

Date of deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession

This information is available online.

2005-01-14

A.3.

Element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List that is the subject of this report

Name of element

Suiti cultural space

Inscribed in

2009

A.4.

Reporting period covered by this report

Please indicate the period covered by this report.

01-10-2013 - 01-10-2017

A.5.

Other elements inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, if any

Please list all other elements from your country inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, together with the year of inscription; for multinational elements, please indicate the other States concerned.

A.6.

Executive summary of the report

Please provide an executive summary of the report that will allow general readers to understand the current status of the element, any positive or negative impacts of inscription, the implementation of safeguarding measures during the reporting period and their possible update for the following years.

Cultural traditions which are practiced in an area populated by the suiti community and are of significance to suiti, alongside the traditional drone singing, folk songs, and suiti dialect, also cover annual festivities, cooking, wedding rituals, playing of musical instruments, dances, wearing traditional costumes, and also the Catholic faith. The annual festivities related to the Catholic faith – Festivity of Saint John the Baptist in Gudenieki, Saint Anne’s Day in Basi, Herb Day ["Zāļu diena"] in Jūrkalne and especially Saint Michael’s Festivity in Alsunga every autumn – unite different generations and facilitate a strong link between popular traditions and the Catholic faith and inheriting thereof.

The number of people residing in the suiti cultural space which, at the time of submitting the nomination for UNESCO, was estimated to be approximately 2000 people has decreased, and also the number of newborn infants is small. Reduction in the suiti community causes justified concern regarding inheriting of the suiti traditions and safeguarding of the cultural space. Suiti reside in the western part of Latvia, near the Baltic Sea, and after the administrative reform the suiti cultural space has been divided into three municipalities – Alsunga municipality, Gudenieki rural territory [or "pagasts"] in Kuldīga municipality, and Jūrkalne rural territory [or "pagasts"] in Ventspils municipality. There are still different opinions in the community as regards the decision to divide the community into separate administrative units. This spatial division has resulted in far-reaching consequences. Currently it affects the everyday life of the community in such essential issues as education.

The links between different generations of the community are strengthened by ethnographic ensembles and folklore groups. Moreover, their range has diversified, and men have joined suiti women in singing and playing of musical instruments. Ensembles "Suitu vīri" [“Suiti men”] and "Suitu dūdenieki" [“Suiti bagpipers”] have been created, master classes have been implemented in order to improve the knowledge and experience in playing bagpipes, and several members of the group have mastered making of the bagpipes and play self-made instruments. Suiti have purposefully and successively looked for opportunities to restore several traditions which have historically discontinued. Concurrently with playing bagpipes, also the skills of playing kokle, making traditional costumes and wedding traditions are being restored. Suiti have managed to have continuous progress towards achieving the selected objectives by individual initiatives and initially local small-scale projects, and currently suiti may be proud of self-made traditional musical instruments and costumes. Restoration of several traditional trades – tailor, shoemaker, hatter, and jewellery designer – is still intended, and the subsequent steps of safeguarding the suiti cultural space will be dedicated thereto. It is also intended to strengthen the co-operation of local entrepreneurs and to promote recognisability of products created in the suiti cultural space and rooted in its traditions.

As recognised by representatives of the suiti community, inclusion in the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding has provided a significant take-off for resolution of the community to become more knowledgeable of their own cultural heritage and to preserve it, to share their experience, and to become acquainted with experience of other communities in safeguarding their culture both in Latvia and in other countries. Over the course of time it has also meant significant strengthening of their abilities for successfully defending the suiti cultural space safeguarding initiatives both in national and international cultural, regional development and cross-border co-operation programmes. Suiti are characterised by relentless attempts to safeguard their cultural environment, and it can be also seen in restoration works of secular and sacred heritage; Alsunga medieval castle which is located in the suiti cultural space is still waiting for its restoration.

A.7.

Contact person for correspondence

Provide the name, address and other contact information of the person responsible for correspondence concerning the report.

Title (Ms/Mr, etc.)

Ms

Family name

Pujāte

Given name

Signe

Institution/position

Director of the Latvian National Centre for Culture

Address

Pils laukums 4, Riga, Latvia, LV-1365, Latvia

Telephone number

(+371) 67228985

E-mail address

signe.pujate@lnkc.gov.lv

Other relevant information

Contact person of the suiti community

Title (Ms/Mr, etc.): Ms
Family name: Martinova
Given name: Dace
Institution/position: Chairperson of the board of the Ethnic Culture Centre (ECC) “Suiti”
Address: Ziedulejas iela 1, Alsunga, Alsungas nov., LV-3306, Latvia
Telephone number: (+371) 29222103
E-mail address: dace.martinova@inbox.lv

B. Status of element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List

Refer to the nomination file or to previous reports, if any, as the basis for reporting on the current status of the element, and report only on relevant changes since the date of inscription on the List or since the previous report. Nomination files, specific timetables and earlier reports, if any, are available at https://ich.unesco.org or from the Secretariat, upon request.

The State Party shall pay special attention to the role of gender and shall endeavour to ensure the widest possible participation of the communities, groups and, where applicable, individuals concerned as well as relevant non-governmental organizations during the process of preparing this report, and is asked to describe how it has done so in point D below.

B.1.

Social and cultural functions

Please explain the social and cultural functions and meanings of the element today, within and for its community, the characteristics of the bearers and practitioners, and any specific roles or categories of persons with special responsibilities towards the element, among others. Attention should be given to any relevant changes related to inscription criterion U.1 (‘the element constitutes intangible cultural heritage as defined in Article 2 of the Convention’).

The meaning of the suiti cultural space and its cultural function for the community is mainly related to being aware of suiti cultural identity, and belonging to the suiti community. Both the expressive and splendid suiti traditional costume worn on special occasions and the use of the characteristic linguistic dialect in everyday life, as well as singing and other traditions serve as symbols attesting to such belonging. Suiti identity is concurrently a source of strong self-confidence which is related to resolution and perseverance characteristic to the suiti, and also concern over well-kept cultural environment.

Alongside the meaning of cultural identity the suiti cultural space has a significant social function in promoting a link among different generations, the sense of responsibility and respect towards the knowledge and experience of the older generation in inheriting cultural traditions. Ethnographic ensembles and folklore groups of the suiti community are mainly based on experience of the older generation, and concurrently it means permanent involvement of the older generation in the public life of the community. Stable roles of different generations have emerged within the community where the older generation provides advice, opinions, evaluations, and shares experience. In turn, the middle and younger generation contributes its energy in planning and implementing different activities of safeguarding traditions. The youngest members of the community are involved in especially designed events of becoming acquainted with the suiti culture. Owing to active participation of the younger generation in the cultural life, revitalisation of suiti traditions is taking place – the customs which had disappeared from the everyday use are returning in families. Therefore, representatives of each generation have a significant role in activities of inheriting cultural traditions as they provide a different contribution for continuation of traditions.

The cultural heritage in the suiti community serves as the cultural identity and co-operation support, and also as a development resource. The community is becoming increasingly aware of its significance and possibilities of its diverse application. It adds an economic function to this heritage by promoting welfare of the community which, in turn, is of crucial importance to safeguarding of the cultural space of the community.

Safeguarding of the suiti cultural space is a personal responsibility of each suits. In turn, persons who have a special role in relation to joint cultural events of the community are participants of suiti ethnographic ensembles and folklore groups, also non-governmental organisations and interest groups, and members of suiti Catholic parishes.

B.2.

Assessment of its viability and current risks

Please describe the current level of viability of the element, particularly the frequency and extent of its practice, the strength of traditional modes of transmission, the demographics of practitioners and audiences and its sustainability. Please also identify and describe the threats, if any, to the element's continued transmission and enactment and describe the severity and immediacy of such threats, giving particular attention to any strengthening or weakening of the element’s viability subsequent to inscription.

Significant events which have received a positive feedback from the community, for example, restoration of several cultural traditions (singing of men, playing of bagpipes) and gradually increasing number of participants, achievements of the community in researching their traditions (history of wearing and making of the traditional costume), as well as deepening of the knowledge and acquisition of the necessary practical skills (strengthening of weaving skills), may be observed in safeguarding of the suiti cultural space. Gradually the interest of suiti in their wedding traditions has increased, and they have been implemented several times in the suiti cultural space during the preceding years.

Also children and young persons display interest in mastering suiti traditions (school of suiti traditions, dance camp), and inheriting of traditions among generations can be observed. Activities of formal and non-formal education (mastering of suiti dialect, drone singing) offer to once again make the traditions as part of the family life. Also co-operation between persons tending to different traditions (playing music by suiti as accompaniment to dances), as well as co-operation in selling products related to the heritage (craft and designing of a uniform mark of product identity) is developing. There is also a support of suiti Catholic priests to care for the cultural environment and local traditions.

However, several risks identified in the previous report are still current.

(1) Reduction in the number of inhabitants can be still observed in the suiti cultural space, and it can be explained with the young generation leaving for cities and regional centres and negative natural growth.

(2) Economic development of the community depends on the State regional policy which is still oriented towards population of regional centres, disregarding rural areas which are not concentrated around such regional centres.

(3) Development of the suiti cultural space depends on the State education policy which envisages closing schools in which the number of pupils is small, without taking into account the significance of such schools as the local culture centres.

(4) The financial support, particularly for implementation of large-scale projects, is inconsistent and insufficient. Apart from individual target programmes, it is mainly granted according to the procedures of project tenders, creating sense of insecurity as regards planning future activities.

Alongside the abovementioned aspects which were topical also during drafting of the previous periodic report, additional risk aspects have been recognised by the suiti community.

(5) Secularisation of the society, as the number of active members of suiti Catholic parishes keeps decreasing, and the number of suiti children attending Sunday schools is quite small. However, the community keeps emphasising the Catholic faith as the pillar of its cultural identity.

(6) Segregation between the persons actively practising suiti traditions and the part of the community which is passive in this regard and for which belonging to the suiti community is determined by other considerations can be observed in the community.

B.3.

Implementation of safeguarding measures

Please report on the safeguarding measures described in the nomination file, and previous report, if any. Describe how they have been implemented and how they have substantially contributed to the safeguarding of the element during the reporting period, taking note of external or internal constraints such as limited resources. Include, in particular, information on the measures taken to ensure the viability of the element by enabling the community to continue to practise and transmit it. Include the following detailed information concerning the implementation of the set of safeguarding measures or safeguarding plan:

B.3.a. Objectives and results

Indicate what primary objective(s) were addressed and what concrete results were attained during the reporting period.

According to the nomination submitted to the UNESCO (2009) and the first report prepared on safeguarding of the suiti cultural space (2013), five primary objectives were chosen for the plan (they have been taken as the basis for sections B.3b, B.3d and B.3e of this report). Upon implementing activities subordinate thereto, the following results have been achieved.

(1) To promote and ensure the safeguarding and transfer of intangible cultural heritage of suiti at the level of pre-school education, general education, vocationally oriented education, interest education, and lifelong education.

Integration of suiti traditions in education process has taken place at different levels, starting from becoming acquainted with the suiti dialect and traditional instruments in a pre-school education institution and ending with acquisition of new skills within the scope of adult lifelong education. The school of suiti traditions has become a popular event among suiti and gathers children of the suiti municipality.

(2) To ensure measures for restoration, acquisition, transfer and promotion of endangered suiti traditions or their elements.

Resuming the traditions of playing bagpipes and kokle, as well as their making, also singing of men has been purposeful and successful. Weaving skills and other skills of fancywork which are necessary for making the traditional costume of suiti have been promoted. It has been the result of an extended and successive work owing to the interest of the community.

(3) To promote the exploration, research and promotion of suiti intangible cultural heritage.

Suiti children and young persons are involved in studies of local history, while representatives of the middle and older generation of the community have prepared new publications regarding different aspects of suiti traditions. Two festivals of suiti drone singing took place as striking events. Success has been achieved in paying special attention to the suiti traditional costumes.

(4) To ensure the recovery and restoration of cultural and historical monuments of significance to the suiti community for activities related to the safeguarding and promotion of the suiti intangible cultural heritage.

The work of restoring Alsunga medieval castle is being continued gradually, carrying out individual works of preservation and restoration. Also the knowledge has been acquired in the suiti community regarding storage of antique textiles which is of use in the work of the Suiti Heritage Depository established by the ECC “Suiti”.

(5) To ensure the safeguarding of the suiti cultural space in long-term, thus promoting economic viability and development of the suiti cultural space.

The sacred heritage of the suiti cultural space has been restored, and dozens of church art objects of the suiti cultural space have obtained the status of State protected cultural monuments, and exploration of the liturgical vestments of suiti Catholic churches has been promoted. An extensive multiannual co-operation between suiti and Liv communities in Latvia, as well as Seto community and community of Kihnu Island in Estonia has been commenced for promoting the economic development and entrepreneurship with the intention of developing tourism in the territories populated by the communities.

B.3.b. Safeguarding activities

List the key activities that were carried out during this reporting period in order to achieve these expected results. Please describe the activities in detail and note their effectiveness or any problems encountered in implementing them.

(1) The largest number of activities has been implemented in the field of education at different levels. In a pre-school education institution children are acquainted with the traditional musical instruments and playing them, drone singing, suiti traditional costume and fancywork. Teachers keep using the publications "Suitu Miķelīša mazā ābece" [“Little ABC of Suiti Miķelītis”] and "Darba lapas suitu Miķelīša draugiem" [“Worksheets for Friends of Suiti Miķelītis”] dedicated to the suiti dialect. Lessons on the subject of local history continue in the primary school in the form of interest education, and the book "Suitu novada mācība" [“Study of Suiti County”] created by teachers from Alsunga and published in 2014 is used in lessons. Upon initiative of teachers suiti traditions are also being integrated in the content of other study subjects. Alsunga Secondary School is actively participating in the UNESCO Associated Schools Project.

The course of "Suitu tradīciju skoliņa" [“Little School of Suiti Traditions”] every summer is continuous and gathers 30 suiti children from different places. At present, the number of children who would like to participate in camps exceeds the number which can be enrolled. Every year a camp for acquisition of playing the traditional kokle and pipe is organised, and in 2017 also a dance camp was organised. Alongside the suiti camps, joint camps for suiti and Setos children and young persons have been commenced in 2014 and organised every year, and they have become a pleasant tradition for children and young persons.

(2) The skills of making and wearing the traditional costume has been restored. Training in making of the traditional costume has been implemented for adults, children and young persons, and special attention has been paid to weaving, colouring of yarn and embroidery techniques. Training was conducted upon initiative of the suiti community, inviting competent researchers, organising exhibitions, as well as trips of exchange of experience to other locations in Latvia. In order to promote revitalisation of craft traditions, restoration of premises in the creative workshop "Austuve" [“Weaving mill”] in Alsunga was carried out. Also, since 2015 lessons in playing kokle are being organised for all persons interested.

(3) Children and young persons have implemented municipality study expeditions (2017), the suiti heritage depositories in Alsunga and Jūrkalne have been supplemented, as well as the site of the suiti cultural space www.suitunovads.lv is being continuously improved, trips of exchange of experience and giving concerts have taken place both in Latvia and in other European countries. Within a time period of four years traditional festivities have been celebrated and international drone singing festivals organised by the suiti community have taken place – in 2014 and 2017 gathering together both Latvian and foreign folklore groups and ethnographic ensembles. Special attention is also being paid to restoration of the dancing tradition and promotion of suiti choreographic heritage. In autumn 2015, suiti dance festival was organised in Alsunga. Also, association "Vēju sēta" [“Court of Winds”] from 2013 to 2015 has organized yearly plein air art events for interpreting suiti traditions.

Several publications prepared by representatives of the suiti community, as well as co-operation partners have been published, for example, the publication "Suit’drān’s. Suitu novada mantojums" [“Suiti Vestments. Heritage of Suiti Municipality”] (2014) which was later updated and supplemented (2017), "Suitu kāzu tērps un tā valkāšanas tradīcijas 19. gadsimtā" [“Suiti Wedding Attire and Traditions for Wearing It in the 19th Century”] (2017, the publication was prepared for eight years creating a full replica of the historical wedding attire preserved in the Finnish National Museum). Continuing paying of special attention to the topic of wedding traditions, part of the suiti folklore material is the album of audio recordings "Suitu kāzas. Precību un kāzu dziesmas" [“Suiti Wedding: Betrothal and Nuptial Songs”] issued in 2016. Each publication has promoted exploration of suiti traditions both in the suiti community and also to a wider extent in Latvia and abroad, also it has promoted the sense of belonging of suiti to their community. A collection of suiti folklore materials has been published in the digital archives of the Latvian folklore depository Garamantas.lv. However, representatives of the community recognise that there is a lack of in-depth academic studies regarding suiti and their culture.

(4) It has been possible to implement only urgent works as regards restoration of immovable cultural monuments. Research, preservation, and restoration of individual parts of Alsunga castle have taken place. However, substantially larger financial contribution is necessary for complete restoration of the castle. Training in preservation and restoration of antique textiles has been successfully implemented in 2015 for restoration of cultural and historical objects. The knowledge and skills acquired are particularly important for the suiti heritage depository in Alsunga where stock consisting of 300 units, including textiles, is being stored.

(5) In order to preserve the suiti cultural environment, special attention is being paid to restoration of sacred heritage. On the basis of a personal initiatives by priests of the Catholic parishes of the suiti cultural space, the list of State cultural monuments was supplemented in 2014 and 2015 with 31 units of art objects from suiti churches (for example, 18th century textiles), an exhibition of 19th and 20th century liturgical vestments of Catholic priests was created in 2015 in Alsunga municipality museum, and "Suitu lūgšana" [“Suiti Prayer”] was created which has become a part of the liturgy in suiti churches.

Restoration of the road covering is a non-implemented intention as regards improvement of the infrastructure. In 2017 a transboundary co-operation project between Estonia and Latvia “Development and Promotion of Small Ethno-cultural Regions as Tourism Destinations – UNESCO Tourism” was commenced, promoting exchange of experience between suiti, Liv communities in Latvia and Setos, Kihnu Island communities in Estonia in relation to the promotion of entrepreneurial development and tourism based on local and cultural traditions. Measures of exchange of experience have gradually promoted more active use of cultural traditions as a resource for the development of the local entrepreneurship, and it is planned to continue such exchange of experience also in the subsequent years.

B.3.c. Participation of communities, groups or individuals in the safeguarding activities

Describe how communities, groups or, if appropriate, individuals as well as relevant non-governmental organizations have effectively participated, including in terms of gender roles, in the safeguarding measures. Describe the role of the implementing organization or body (name, background, etc.) and the human resources that were available for implementing safeguarding activities.

Safeguarding of the suiti cultural space depends on the suiti community on the whole. During the last years the number of cultural activities organised has increased, however, a comparatively small part of the community participates in them. Members of non-governmental organisations want a more extensive and active involvement of the community in the events organised. Meanwhile, others acknowledge that suiti cultural identity should be viewed more widely, as part of the everyday life of suiti and as a sense of belonging. In comparison with the previous report (2013) the number of those members of the community who are actively involved in safeguarding of suiti traditions has changed.

(1) Participation of children and young persons in ensembles and folklore groups has decreased. It is caused both by reduction in the number of children and also their going to study at schools which are located outside the suiti cultural space. The folklore group in Basi "Krētainie suiti" (2002) has discontinued its operation from 2017. The number of dancers in dance collectives has decreased from 60 to 43 participants. The number of participants of the folklore group "Suitiņi" (1985) has decreased from 8 to 6 participants. Without doubt the range of activities implemented has been extensive and intense for the ensembles which continue their operation.

(2) Reduction in the number of participants has also been observed in several middle generation ensembles – in rural band "Suitu muzikanti" (2010) 5 of 8 musicians keep playing, the in ethnographic ensemble "Maģie suiti" (1959) in Jūrkalne there was a decrease from 13 to 6 participants. In turn, the number of participants in ethnographic ensemble "Gudenieku suiti" (1965) in Gudenieki has decreased from 16 to 12 participants.

(3) The number of participants in the ethnographic ensemble "Suitu sievas" (1955) has remained unchanged – 17, and 9 participants continue involvement in the traditions ensemble "Basu suiti" (2011). There are continuously 6 participants in the creative workshop "Austuve" (2009) and 6 weavers in the weaver’s workshop (2013) in Jūrkalne. Increase in the number of participants, particularly in relation to suiti dancing traditions and involvement of men in singing and music-playing traditions, can also be observed – in the middle generation dance group Suiti (1982), from 18 to 22 participants, the middle generation dance collective "Jūrkalne" (2017) has resumed its operation, and (mainly middle generation) suiti groups "Suitu vīri" (2013, 10 participants) and "Suitu dūdenieki" (2014, 7 participants) have joined, restoring the tradition of playing bagpipes in the suiti cultural space and becoming the largest group playing traditional bagpipes in Latvia.

Number of participants of non-governmental organisations of the suiti community (see section C.3 of the report) is relatively small, however the events organised by them are open to the whole community, as well as other persons interested. Contribution to preservation of the suiti cultural heritage is also provided by parishes of the Roman Catholic Church – parish of St. Michael’s Alsunga Roman Catholic church, parish of St. Joseph’s Jūrkalne Roman Catholic church, and parish of St. John the Baptist’s Gudenieki Roman Catholic church.

B.3.d. Timetable and budget

Indicate in a timetable when each activity was implemented and the funds that were used for its implementation, identifying the source of funding for each (governmental sources, in-kind community inputs, etc.).

Safeguarding activities of the suiti cultural space are based on self-initiative and self-contribution of suiti to which co-financing is being attracted. Activities (see section B.3b of the report) are mainly implemented with small-scale projects, and each of them obtains financing from several sources. Projects have been implemented throughout the period presented in the report. State funding for implementation of projects is being granted via project tenders of the State Culture Capital Fund (hereinafter – SCCF). Concurrently with project-based attracting of financing there is a continuous local government and State financing in the form of earmarked grants which is provided to educational and cultural education institutions, also to culture institutions and remuneration of the directors of ethnographic ensembles and folklore groups. The following budget refers to the primary objectives of the safeguarding plan (see section B.3a of the report).

(1) Self-financing of the suiti community (including associations) – 4 100 (hereinafter in EUR, rounded in full hundreds), municipalities (hereinafter – local governments of Alsunga, Kuldīga and Ventspils municipalities) – 61 400, SCCF – 7 600, State budget and earmarked grants – 11 600, European Regional Development Fund – 4 800.

(2) Self-financing of the suiti community (including associations) – 2 900, municipalities – 79 200, SCCF (including Kurzeme regional culture programme) – 30 300, European Agricultural and Rural Development Fund (LEADER Programme) – 44 700.

(3) Self-financing of the suiti community (including associations and entrepreneurs) – 11 200,, municipalities – 53 900, SCCF – 39 400, State budget (Latvian National Culture Centre) – 3 400, UNESCO Participation Programme – 2 800. Currently significant financial resources from the State budget and European Union are being granted to digitalisation of the cultural heritage and provision of digital access, and it also includes the suiti cultural heritage.

(4) Municipalities – 31 300, SCCF – 17 200, State budget (State Inspection for Heritage Protection) – 7 100, European Maritime and Fisheries Fund – 39 700.

(5) Self-financing of the suiti community (Catholic parishes) – 21 000, municipalities – 12 200, SCCF – 19 600, State budget and earmarked grants (including the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development, the Ministry of Culture, the State Inspection for Heritage Protection) – 39 400, European Regional Development Fund – 6 500.

Distribution of the financing from different abovementioned sources during the time period of four years has been even, and in general financing in the amount of 551 300 has been utilised for safeguarding activities concurrently with the contribution of the community which cannot be fully measured in material terms: A) suiti community – 39 200 (including financing from the associations, parishes, and entrepreneurs), B) local governments of municipalities – 238 000, C) State budget – 175 600 (including earmarked grants – 61 500, SCCF – 114 100), D) European Union funds – 95 700, and UNESCO Participation Programme – 2 800.

B.3.e. Overall effectiveness of the safeguarding activities

Provide an overall assessment of the effectiveness of the activities undertaken to achieve the expected results and of the efficiency of the use of funds for implementing the activities. Please indicate how the activities contributed to achieving the results and whether other activities could have contributed better to achieving the same results. Also indicate whether the same results could have been achieved with less funding, whether the human resources available were appropriate and whether communities, groups and individuals could have been better involved.

Inheriting of suiti cultural traditions takes place both in families and everyday life of suiti (use of the dialect of the Latvian language, celebrating festivities, fancywork, etc.) and in joint initiatives which are based on the operation of culture and educational institutions, non-governmental organisations, and interest groups. All these organisations have a small aggregate of human resources. Safeguarding activities of the suiti cultural space have been implemented with limited, however, gradually increasing financing which is directed towards all objectives set.

(1) Efficiency of integrating suiti traditions in formal and non-formal educational programmes depends on the State education policy, as well as on the demographic situation (low birth rate) and individual choices of parents in educating their children. Only Alsunga Secondary School has remained from the three schools of the suiti cultural space. Jūrkalne Primary School was closed in 2016, and Basi branch of Kuldīga Primary School was closed in 2017. In 2017 there was no one to start studies in grade ten of Alsunga Secondary School, therefore, the option of closing the secondary school is under review, intending to leave primary school grades only.

(2) Restoration and continuation of several traditions and skills has been successful (playing and making of bagpipes and kokle, making and wearing of the traditional costume). However, continuation of traditions primarily depends on individual likings of people (traditional music is only part of the repertoire of the local music band) or personal preferences (ancient wedding traditions have been restored in some wedding ceremonies).

(3) Involvement of children and young persons in work of documentation has been of significance. Publications and seminars supporting knowledge regarding suiti traditions have helped to continue the skills (making of traditional costumes). Alongside the accomplishments of suiti themselves, promotion of the suiti cultural space as external initiative has turned out to be influential (documentary "Ručs un Norie", TV series and national e-services advertisement).

(4) The knowledge acquired as a result of training regarding preservation and restoration of cultural objects (antique textiles) has been a purposeful benefit which is of significance for the work with the suiti material heritage depository. In turn, a significantly larger investment of resources is necessary for restoration of cultural monuments (Alsunga medieval castle).

(5) Initiatives for establishment of protection of movable cultural objects, also small restoration projects have been fruitful for preserving the sacred heritage. In turn, preservations of immovable cultural objects (suiti churches) demands further investment. It will be possible to evaluate efficiency of activities related to the economic development (creation of a joint brand of suiti products, exchange of experience by local entrepreneurs) only after a longer period of time.

The financial resources available have been utilised purposefully and thoughtfully, and most probably it would not have been possible to achieve the same results by other means or smaller resources. Although it has not been possible to implement everything within the scope of the human resources and financing available, suiti community evaluates the work carried out as useful and necessary. Challenges were observed in areas where development does not directly depend on the community, but is related to a more extensive regional and national development.

Alongside the processes attesting to the viability of traditions, the community still recognises safeguarding of the suiti cultural space as urgent because of the risks endangering identity of suiti and inheriting of traditions.

C. Update of the safeguarding measures

C.1.

Updated safeguarding plan

Please provide an update of the safeguarding plan included in the nomination file or in the previous report. In particular provide detailed information as follows:

  1. a. What primary objective(s) will be addressed and what concrete results will be expected?
  2. b. What are the key activities to be carried out in order to achieve these expected results? Describe the activities in detail and in their best sequence, addressing their feasibility.
  3. c. How will the State(s) Party(ies) concerned support the implementation of the updated safeguarding plan?

The updated safeguarding plan of the suiti cultural space continues the previously commenced direction, and principal objectives have been selected: (1) to ensure regular and methodical documenting and research of the suiti intangible cultural heritage, promoting co-operation between educational and research institutions and the suiti community; (2) to promote educational, practical, and transfer activities of all kinds in all levels of education, particularly among children and young persons, in order to ensure the sustainability of the traditions characteristic to the suiti cultural space and the co-operation of generations in their transfer; (3) to promote recognisability of the heritage characteristic to the suiti cultural space in Latvia and abroad; (4) to use the creative potential of the suiti cultural space for the development of new products and services with added value, ensuring that representatives of the suiti community are the main beneficiaries; (5) to ensure the support infrastructure necessary for safeguarding of the suiti cultural space, particularly promoting recovery and restoration of cultural and historical monuments and artefacts of significance to the suiti community. In order to achieve the objectives defined, the foreseeable results and activities have been determined:

(1) Research and documentation

Co-operation with the institutions of higher education and research will ensure that expressions of the suiti cultural heritage and the persons practising them will be studied. It is planned to pay special attention to the research of traditional celebrations. Several activities will promote access to the suiti heritage online: registers of local parishes will be digitalised, suiti folklore materials will be aggregated and made available, and place names of the suiti cultural space will be mapped. Alongside successful operation of the suiti heritage depositories, it is planned to open tourism and information centres. It is envisaged to ensure issuing of publications in suiti dialect with the objective of promoting the number of persons knowing and practising it in everyday life.

(2) Practising, transfer, education

It is planned to continue integration of suiti culture elements in the process of lessons in pre-school educational institutions, in study subjects in Alsunga Secondary School, as well as in interest education in Alsunga Music and Art School. Several of the planned activities continue successfully commenced practices: acquisition of the music and dance traditions, and wearing the traditional costume. Summer camps for suiti children are planned to be proposed also to diaspora. It is intended to continue the research and to organise training for adults, particularly with the intent of restoring the craft skills of a tailor, shoemaker, hatter, and jewellery designer, and traditions of making musical instruments – bagpipes, kokle, and violin.

(3) Promotion of recognisability

Essential role in forming the identity of suiti is played by traditional festivities and celebrations of suiti which also promote recognisability of the suiti cultural space. The international drone singing festival will continue the promotion of suiti culture. The visual identity of suiti is being considered – it is intended to create a brand for recognisability of products of suiti craftsmen and domestic producers. It is also planned to promote the recognisability of suiti with the help of audiovisual materials. Henceforth digital information resources will also be taken care of: website www.suitunovads.lv, as well as profiles of the suiti cultural space in social networks.

(4) Entrepreneurship and creative industries

In order to improve safe socio-economic grounds concurrently safeguarding the cultural environment characteristic to the suiti cultural space, it is intended to develop domestic production and craftsmanship based on suiti traditions and principles of organic farming. Development of entrepreneurial skills is planned with the help of general educational programmes and measures of lifelong education. It is planned to promote the establishment of cooperative societies and to ensure trade in articles of suiti craftsmen, creating an online platform "Suitu amatu māja" ["Suiti crafts house"].

(5) Infrastructure

In order to safeguard the suiti cultural space in long-term, the infrastructure must be developed and tending to the cultural environment must be continued. It is planned to renew roads in order to ensure the reachability of the suiti cultural space. Also work on restoration and renewal of suiti churches and historical buildings of parishes and objects related thereto, as well as of Alsunga medieval castle will be continued. For the purpose of promoting tourism it is planned to create nature and recreational parks, a centre of creative workshops and a suiti ethnographic farm, promoting exploration of the traditional farming and fisheries practices. For attracting entrepreneurship and financing a support fund for the suiti cultural space is to be established.

The safeguarding plan has been developed for 2017 to 2019, with the intent of updating it, upon co-operation of the association ECC “Suiti” with the local governments, the Latvian National Culture Centre, the UNESCO Latvian National Commission, and the Ministry of Culture. Involvement of all the abovementioned parties is intended in implementation of the plan. Alongside the abovementioned institutions, the plan also provides for involvement of the State Inspection for Heritage Protection, the Ministry of Education and Science, the Ministry of Environmental Protection and Regional Development, and the Nature Conservation Agency, also the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Transport, co-operating in implementation of the policy related to the maintenance of the cultural environment.

State funding for safeguarding suiti cultural space is planned in the form of yearly State budget earmarked grants for cultural education – 57 450, folk groups and ethnographic ensembles – 3 630, ECC “Suiti” – 10 000. For or a three year period it is 213 240, with possibility of its gradual increase. In turn, for restoration and renovation of the Alsunga medieval castle 281 000 are planned (2018–2019). Concurrently with contribution of State institutions substantial support is expected from the local governments. There is also an attributed funding of the European Union funds – 23 020 for developing entrepreneurship in tourism (2017–2020). Other potential resources are to be attracted based on projects, including from the State Culture Capital Fund.

C.2.

Community participation

Please describe how communities, groups and individuals, as well as relevant non-governmental organizations have been involved, including in terms of gender roles, in updating the safeguarding plan, and how they will be involved in its implementation.

The safeguarding plan has been developed on the basis of the memorandum of co-operation which was signed on 17 August 2016 between the association ECC “Suiti”, the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Latvia, the Latvian National Culture Centre, UNESCO Latvian National Commission, and three local governments – Alsunga Municipality Council, Kuldīga Municipality Council, and Ventspils Municipality Council. The present memorandum of co-operation is in effect until 31 December 2020. It was elaborated in order to promote implementation of cultural activities, formal and non-formal education and of economic activities which would ensure safeguarding of the suiti intangible cultural heritage. The first such memorandum of co-operation was signed on 20 January 2010, and the second memorandum attests to the continuation of the co-operation already commenced.

In order to update the safeguarding plan, three meetings were organised in September and October 2016 with participation of representatives of the suiti community from ECC “Suiti”, priest of Catholic parishes of the suiti cultural space, teachers from Alsunga Secondary School, and representatives of the local governments, as well as representatives from those State institutions which signed the abovementioned memorandum of co-operation. The plan developed was approved by the board of the association ECC “Suiti” in which representatives of the community individually and the local governments involved are participating. According to the memorandum of co-operation, the parties involved, including representatives of the association ECC “Suiti”, meet once a year in order to evaluate the implementation of the plan and the results achieved and to agree on the next action directions and planned activities.

In relation to gender roles, the operation of the association ECC “Suiti” is characterised by gender equality. The board of the association is periodically re-elected, and concurrently representatives of different genders of the society participate therein. Gender equality is also characteristic to other non-governmental organisations which operate for safeguarding of the suiti heritage and are involved in implementation activities of the plan. Similarly gender equality may be observed in the management and representation of local governments.

C.3.

Institutional context

Please report on the institutional context for the local management and safeguarding of the element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, including:

  1. a. the competent body(ies) involved in its management and/or safeguarding;
  2. b. the organization(s) of the community or group concerned with the element and its safeguarding.

Local governments of three municipalities – Alsunga, Kuldīga (Gudenieki rural territory), and Ventspils (Jūrkalne rural territory) – are involved in the management and safeguarding of the suiti cultural space. Culture houses operate in all three municipalities. Each of them implements activities for safeguarding of the suiti cultural space. Also Catholic parishes are related to safeguarding of the suiti cultural space (see also section B.3c of the report).

The association ECC “Suiti” implements safeguarding activities and promotes co-operation of the community with local governments and State institutions. "Suitu amatnieki" [“Suiti craftsmen”] promote craftsmanship in the suiti community. Several other local associations stimulate the interest in suiti cultural heritage. "Suitu novads" ["Suiti County"] and "Suitu kultūras mantojums" ["Suiti Cultural Heritage"] contribute to the research and recognisability of suiti cultural history.

D. Participation of communities in preparing this report

Describe the measures taken to ensure the widest possible participation of the communities, groups and, where applicable, individuals concerned as well as relevant non-governmental organizations during the process of preparing this report.

Preparation of the report was planned and implemented upon co-operation between the Latvian National Centre for Culture, the Latvian Academy of Culture and the association ECC “Suiti”. Participation of the suiti community in development of the report took place with the support of the association. The written report on safeguarding activities of the suiti cultural space prepared by the association served as informative basis.

In order to evaluate the current situation in safeguarding of the suiti cultural space, the initial meeting for planning the development of the report with representatives of the association ECC “Suiti” was followed by more extensive discussion. It gathered representatives of the community from different fields of activity – directors of ethnographic ensembles, representatives of local governments, priest of the suiti Catholic parishes, local entrepreneurs whose activity is related to the suiti cultural heritage – to a conversation at Alsunga Culture House on 2 November 2017. During development of the report several interviews were conducted and individual written opinions were received.

The initial version of the report was prepared in Latvian and disseminated through the ECC “Suiti” to community members. "Suiti dižsapulce" ["Suiti Grand Meeting"] was organised by the association on 20 November 2017 at Alsunga Culture House for discussing it, inviting all interested parties from the suiti community, as well as representatives of the local governments and State institutions. The opinions expressed at the meeting were taken into account in developing the final version of the report.

E. Signature on behalf of the State Party

The report should be signed by an official empowered to do so on behalf of the State, and should include his or her name, title and the date of submission.

Name

Dace Melbārde

Title

Minister for Culture of the Republic of Latvia

Date

15-12-2017

Signature

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