Nongak, community band music, dance and rituals in the Republic of Korea
Inscribed in 2014 (9.COM) on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of HumanityNongak is a popular performing art derived from communal rites and rustic entertainments. It has evolved into a representative performing art of the Republic of Korea, combining a percussion ensemble and sometimes wind instruments, parading, dancing, drama and acrobatic feats. Local Nongak performers clad in colourful costumes perform their music and dance during community events with various purposes, such as appeasing gods, chasing evil spirits, praying for a rich harvest in spring then celebrating it during autumn festivals and fund-raising for community projects. There are distinctive regional styles of Nongak, generally divided among five cultural centres. Within each area, differences exist from one village to another in band composition, performing style, rhythm and costumes. Dancing includes choreographic formations and streamer dances while actors wearing masks and peculiar outfits also perform funny skits. Acrobatics include dish spinning and miming antics by child dancers carried on the shoulders of adult performers. The public becomes familiar with Nongak through observation and participation in its performances, while community groups and educational institutions play an important role in teaching and transmitting the different components. Nongak helps to enhance solidarity and cooperation in the community and establishes a sense of shared identity among community members.
- Dangsanje Rite of Imsil Pilbong - Nongak is played during the service for village guardian god on the first full moon day of the year.
- Treading Yards of Imsil Pilbong - The service is followed by treading the village houses’ courtyards to ward off evil spirits and bring good fortune.
- Treading Yards of Gurye Jansu - When treading the yards, village fund is raised for community projects.
- Weeding-rice-paddy Pungjang of Hwanggeum-ri, Damyang - People sing and play nongak to work in tune with others when seedling and weeding rice paddies.
- Weeding-rice-paddy Pungjang of Hwanggeum-ri, Damyang - People sing and dance to the nongak music betweenwhiles to take rest.
- Yeonpungdae Dance by Female Nongak Troupe of Gurye - Yeonpungdae Dance features three overlapping circles, created by rotating dancers, their twirling sangmo hats and the big circle formed by entire dancers.
- Ssangomudong of Pyeongtaek, Gyeonggi - Omudong refers to the perfonnance of building a human tower formed by one person supporting the other five on top of him, each standing on the other's shoulder. Ssangomudong means double Omudong. It is performed in the middle part of the Korean Peninsula.
- Nanjanggut Gilnori of Beopseongpo, Yeonggwang - When a big market is open, Gilnori and Pangut (road rite) are performed by a nongak troupe for promoting the market.
- An elementary schoolers’ nongak club of Samcheonpo, Jinju - Elementary schoolers have learned and performed a Pangut ritual native to their region.