List the key activities that were carried out during this reporting period in order to achieve these expected results. Please describe the activities in detail and note their effectiveness or any problems encountered in implementing them.
The Law on Protection of Cultural Heritage defines the classification of cultural heritage in detail, and in articles 5.1.9., 5.1.10. for the first time, “sacred places” and “historical monuments” are defined as cultural heritage in the category of “Immovable historical and cultural monuments”.
During the reporting period, the following measures were implemented.
1. Within the framework of improving the legal environment and heritage protection system:
In July 2021, the Government of Mongolia approved a resolution to amend the Law on Protection of Cultural Heritage, which includes the following provisions related to the protection of intangible cultural heritage. These include:
Newly added provisions:
- 14.1.10. Protect and restore the authenticity and integrity of historical and cultural immovable monuments listed in the World Heritage Tentative List and the World Heritage List, protect and strengthen the viability of intangible cultural heritage listed in the UNESCO Representative List and List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding to include measures in the annual state budget and implement them; ”
- 14.1.17. To take measures to register immovable historical and cultural monuments in the World Heritage Tentative List and the World Heritage List, and to register intangible cultural heritage in the UNESCO Representative List and List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding; ”
- 8.4. Intangible cultural heritage shall be registered in the National Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage and in the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding, taking into account its historical, cultural, artistic, aesthetic and scientific value and importance.
- 27.3. Permission to conduct paleontological, archeological exploration, excavation and intangible cultural heritage research in the territory of Mongolia shall be issued by the Government member in charge of cultural affairs based on the proposal of the Professional Council under the state central administrative body in charge of cultural affairs.
The above amendments will take effect on January 1, 2022.
In addition, Mongolia's long-term development policy “Vision - 2050” states “1.4.3. To restore the names of renamed places based on the research materials, and restore the traditional rituals related to sacred sites and places; 1.5.9. To identify sacred mountains and water areas, to research written material, history and legends, related works of art and artifacts that used at the sacred sites”.
The Government of Mongolia has established the administration office under the Ministry of Culture to manage the preservation and protection of the World Heritage Site - The Great Burkhan Khaldun Mountain and its surrounding sacred landscape in 2020. The Administration office started operating from the April 2020.
Following the Presidential Decree No. 81 of 2021 the Noyon-Uul Mountain was declared as a state sacred mountain that preserves the cultural heritage of the Xiongnu Empire, and the protection boundaries were established.
The “Geographical Name Council” was established in 2019 under the Department of Land Management, Geodesy and Cartography. The council has sub-councils in 21 provinces, 9 districts and 330 soums and based on the old maps, research and suggestions of local sub-councils, the names of the places being restored given an accurate Mongolian name and introduced to the public. Representatives of the Ministry of Culture are members of the board and plan to work closely with the council in research, training and advocacy to protect the heritage.
From 2020, the Minister of Culture of Mongolia will sign annual agreements with the governors of 21 provinces and the capital city on the protection of cultural heritage, which will undoubtedly contribute to increasing the role and participation of local governments in the protection of cultural heritage.
In 2021, the Government of Mongolia decided to establish Culture Departments in the provinces. Prior to that, the province governor's office had a “Department of Education and Culture” and a small number of people were in charge of cultural issues. It is hoped that the change will improve the safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage, the quality and access to cultural services, and the implementation of state cultural policy at the local level.
2. In the field of registration and research:
- In the framework of the UNESCO project implemented in 2019-2021, the work on identifying local sacred sites, rituals, their heritage practitioners and individuals, and creating a primary registration database has been underway since 2010. In order to increase the database, in 2019, research expeditions were successfully organized in four regions.
- Based on the information collected in the framework of the survey, the above-mentioned relevant organizations and practitioners together compiled and disseminated information on 810 sacred places, mountains and practitioners of the "Mongolian traditional practice of worshiping sacred sites" to the national database. This is the first time in Mongolia that the registration of a single heritage species has been carried out in a unified and electronic manner throughout the country. These records are unique in that they contain both tangible and intangible cultural heritage.
3. Training and advertising:
- In order to strengthen the knowledge and capacity of local people, trainees and youth, a handbook (1000 copies) and a video presentation were developed and distributed to all soums of 21 provinces for local heritage practitioners and communities.
- In 2019, a two-day national workshop on capacity building was organized for community members, community representatives and professionals.
- With the support of the trainers who participated in the national seminar, the province Governor's Office organized local seminars in 21 provinces in 2019 in accordance with the guidelines. As a result of these workshops, a national network of more than 400 local interns and cultural workers from cultural centers has been established to revive and disseminate the traditions of worship.
4. In support of heritage practitioners:
- Between October 2019 and June 2021, the contest “Let's cherish the lands of our ancestors” was announced and awarded among the heritage practitioners.
5. challenges encountered:
- Due to the global epidemic of COVID-19, it was difficult to establish a national quarantine and perform some state and local performances. For example, limiting the number of participants in worshiping performances.