Watertight-bulkhead technology of Chinese junks

Inscribed in 2010 (5.COM) on the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding

© 2009 by Huang Yanyi

Developed in South China’s Fujian Province, the watertight-bulkhead technology of Chinese junks permits the construction of ocean-going vessels with watertight compartments. If one or two cabins are accidentally damaged in the course of navigation, seawater will not flood the other cabins and the vessel will remain afloat. The junks are made mainly of camphor, pine and fir timber, and assembled through use of traditional carpenters’ tools. They are built by applying the key technologies of rabbet-jointing planks together and caulking the seams between the planks with ramie, lime and tung oil. The construction is directed by a master craftsman who oversees a large number of craftsmen, working in close coordination. Local communities participate by holding solemn ceremonies to pray for peace and safety during construction and before the launch of the completed vessel. The experience and working methods of watertight-bulkhead technology are transmitted orally from master to apprentices. However, the need for Chinese junks has decreased sharply as wooden vessels are replaced by steel-hulled ships, and today only three masters can claim full command of this technology. Associated building costs have also increased owing to a shortage in raw materials. As a result, transmission of this heritage is decreasing and transmitters are forced to seek alternative employment.

Periodic reporting

A. Cover sheet

A.1. State Party

China

A.2. Date of deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession

2004-12-02

A.3. Element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List that is the subject of this report

Name of element

Watertight-bulkhead technology of Chinese junks

Inscribed in

2010

A.4. Reporting period covered by this report

January 2011 - December 2015

A.5. Other elements inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, if any

Hezhen Yimakan storytelling (2011)
Meshrep (2010)
Qiang New Year festival (2009)
Traditional design and practices for building Chinese wooden arch bridges (2009)
Traditional Li textile techniques: spinning, dyeing, weaving and embroidering (2009)
Wooden movable-type printing of China (2010)

A.6. Executive summary of the report

The watertight-bulkhead technology of Chinese junks is a traditional craftsmanship for the construction of ocean-going vessels in Fujian Province. It has been transmitted from generation to generation among the local communities in Fujian and other related areas since the Jin Dynasty (265-420 AD). With the development of the society and times, it has been continually updated, reflecting its vitality and adaptability of the intangible cultural heritage. The element is considered as an important part of their cultural wealth by the local communities, groups and individuals. As a major invention of shipbuilding technology in ancient times, the element improves the insubmersibility of ships and strengthens the navigation safety. Therefore it has been widely applied in the building of fishing vessels, cargo ships, warships, and ships used in foreign affairs and made positive contributions to the exchange and dialogue between western and eastern ancient civilizations. The element has its place in modern shipbuilding industry, because the core technology -- a scientific and environment friendly material with strong adhesiveness is still widely used today. However, the need for large wooden vessels has decreased sharply as they are replaced by ironclad ships with the development of distant fishing, which has great impact on the building of Chinese junks. Meanwhile, the building of Chinese junks is a labor-intensive task with low incomes, and is less attractive to young people. The technology that has been transmitted for hundreds of years is now facing the lack of bearers for transmission. Currently, the element is only distributed in Fujian Province and some parts of Zhejiang Province. Moreover, the costs for building traditional Chinese junks have increased due to the shortage of large timber and its high price. It becomes even more difficult for the survival of the ship-building.
After its inscription, the viability of the element in the coastal communities of Fujian Province has been improved, and the frequency and range of the practice have been expanded, and the number of participants and bearers of the element has been increased.
During the reporting period (2011-2015), Chinese governments at all levels, relevant communities, individuals, and organizations have taken a series of safeguarding measures to revitalize the vitality and to improve the viability of the element:
(1) Focusing on the safeguarding of bearers, more young people and the public were encouraged to participate in the transmission of the element and the number of bearers was increased;
(2) Promotion activities were organized in the region where the element is centered to enhance the public recognition and awareness of the importance of intangible cultural heritage. The activities include inviting bearers to make models of watertight-bulkhead ships, organizing exhibitions, and publishing stamp albums;
(3) Infrastructure relevant to the safeguarding of the element was constructed to provide solid basis for the revitalization of the vitality of the element;
(4) Documentation focusing on the databases has been implemented. The traditional manufacturing technology is digitized and preserved by multimedia;
(5) The role of bearers in scientific research was given full play through their active participation in academic activities to promote the visibility of the element in academic community and the public;
(6) The innovation of traditional modes of transmission is realized through the combination of traditional technology with modern vocational education in order to explore the sustainable transmission of intangible cultural heritage among young people.
As a result, the abovementioned measures have promoted the safeguarding and transmission of the element. They are welcomed by the communities concerned and have had positive social impact.

A.7. Contact person for correspondence

Title (Ms/Mr, etc.)

Ms

Family name

Zheng

Given name

Liling

Institution/position

Cultural Center for Jinjiang City, Fujian Province, China

Address

Cultural Center Shiji Dadao 362200 Jinjiang Downtown Fujian Province

Telephone number

+86-595-85631708

Fax number

E-mail address

541103039@qq.com

Other relevant information

www.jjswhg.com.cn (the website for Jinjiang Culture)

B. Status of element inscribed on the urgent safeguarding list

B.1. Social and cultural functions

(1) The element witnesses and records the development of the ancient Maritime Silk Road and plays a vital role in the foreign trade of ancient China. It has been considered by the local communities, groups and individuals as an important part of their culture. The transmission of the element contributes to enhancing the sense of identity, sense of belonging, and sense of pride among the community members. Especially the cultural identity, which takes Chinese Junk as the culture symbol, helps to raise the awareness of relevant communities and groups of the safeguarding of the element. Although the traditional wooden junks with practical functions have disappeared in some regions, the traditional craftsmanship is still there. Sometimes on special occasions, local communities still hold the ceremony used to be organized before the building of an old style ship and offer sacrifices on the coast to pray for safety and blessing for the whole community.
(2) Bearers of the element are professionals in the traditional shipbuilding industry in relevant regions. The bearers commanding the core technology of the element are called "shifutou" or master craftsmen. They take charge of design of the watertight-bulkhead and oversee a large number of craftsmen to work closely together to build the ocean-going junk with several independent watertight compartments which are jointed together. The core technology fully reflects the transmission of the technology, innovation of the bearers and the collaboration spirit among the craftsmen.
(3) The element is transmitted mainly in modes of from masters to apprentices or from fathers to sons. The traditional procedure for accepting apprentices is strictly followed and should be recognized by the local community. At present, bearers of the element include Chen Fangcai, Yang Liangdun, Chen Zhuchun, and Su Rendie in Shenhu Town of Jinjiang City and the Liu Family in Zhangwan Town of Jiaocheng District in Ningde City. They are mainly responsible for the building, maintenance, and protection of local watertight-bulkhead Chinese junks. Among them, Chen Fangcai, Liu Xixiu, Liu Chaowei, Chen Zhuchun, Yang Liangdun, and Su Rendie, identified as the representative bearers, are playing an indispensable role in the transmission and practice of the element.

B.2. Assessment of its viability and current risks

(1) Currently, the element is still distributed in relevant communities in coastal areas of Fujian Province and adjacent islands in China. There are merely 9 master craftsmen who completely command the core technology of the element, including Chen Fangcai, Chen Zhuchun, Liu Xixiu, and Liu Sanji. Their average age is over 50. About 260 other people also participate in the practice of the element. The number of people who intend to learn about the technology is gradually increasing through the workshops at the training and practice centers, the activities to bring intangible culture heritage into schools, and the regular exhibitions organized at exhibition halls. Some young people become interested and engaged in this craftsmanship. In recent years, the number of Chinese junks built in Jiaocheng District of Ningde City has increased due to the development of aquaculture industry in coastal area.
(2) With the growing popularity of ironclad powered ships, wooden watertight-bulkhead Chinese junks have disappeared in high seas. Only a few fishing vessels operating in coastal waters are built with this technology. A large number of shipyards producing watertight-bulkhead Chinese junks have closed down. A few traditional shipbuilding villages in Zhangwan Town linger on, yet in gloomy conditions. The space for application of the element is seriously squeezed and the frequency for its practice is declining. Since most of the master craftsmen are illiterate and lack accurate sketches and measurement data, they have to store their working methods and their experience in mind, and teach their apprentices through oral instructions. If the information is not collected, recorded, and preserved in time, the technology will face the danger of extinction. Besides, building the wooden watertight-bulkhead Chinese junks is not profitable at all, thus not attractive to most young people. The lacking of bearers then becomes a prominent problem.
(3) There are rigid requirements for the choice of timber for building the watertight-bulkhead Chinese junks. The timber should be fir, camphor or pine at least 30 years old. However, this kind of timber is very expensive. As a result, the costs for building the watertight-bulkhead Chinese junks are increasing rapidly while the number of completed work is decreasing. The prominent contradiction between the raw material and the sustainable development has become the major bottleneck in the development of the element.

B.3. Implementation of safeguarding measures

B.3a. Objectives and results

(1) The number of bearers and the frequency of relevant practice are increased: the number of representative bearers identified during the reporting period is nine and about 260 people are directly involved in the relevant practice. Compared with the situation before 2010, the number of confirmed representative bearers has increased by seven and the number of people directly involved in the relevant practice has increased by thirteen. Meanwhile, a number of training centers and relevant organizations have been established to ensure the frequency of practice of the element, including the Watertight-bulkhead Technology of Chinese Junks Training and Practice Center of Jinjiang Vocational School, the Jinjiang Fangcai Watertight-bulkhead Technology of Chinese Junks Training and Practice Center, Ningde Jiaocheng Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks Research Center, Ningde Zhangwan Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks Production Base, Zhangwan Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks Exhibition Center, and the Zhangwan Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks Training and Practice Center for middle and primary schools.
(2) The viability and visibility of the element are improved: during the reporting period, a total of 60 watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks and 30 models of Chinese Junks have been built. Some of them have been collected and exhibited in China Museum for Fujian-Taiwan Kinship, Jinjiang Intangible Cultural Heritage Museum, Shenhu Ship Model Museum, Ningde Art Center, Intangible Cultural Heritage Hall in Cultural Center of Jiaocheng District, and Zhangwan Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks Exhibition Center. Tens of thousands of people have learned about the watertight-bulkhead technology of Chinese Junks through these exhibitions. The website of Ningde Jiaocheng Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks has been launched. “Night of Chinese Junks” party was organized at Zhangwan Cultural Center on February 7, 2014 to promote the culture of Chinese Junks.
(3) Documentation has been started: 500 electronic pictures, 130 Gigabyte videos, 200 Megabyte written materials, and 50 pieces of design manuscripts and historical materials have been collected.
(4) Legislation guarantee has been provided for safeguarding the element: several laws and regulations have been put into effect to provide legislation guarantee for safeguarding the element, including Regulation on Safeguarding Ethnic and Folk Culture in Fujian Province, Interim Measures on Safeguarding and Management of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Jiaocheng District of Ningde City, and Suggestions on Cultural Development and Protection of Jinjiang City (Trial).

B.3b. Safeguarding activities

—Activities for Safeguarding Bearers and the Transmission Modes
(1) Governments at all levels provided a certain funds to support the activities of bearers, which was combined with policy support in terms of the use of venues, taxation, loans, administrative approval, and so on. Two ceremonies were organized for representative bearers to take on apprentices. On one hand, it increased the visibility of the element in the public and raised the awareness of cultural identity and safeguarding among relevant communities; on the other hand, it ignited the passion of young people in participating in the transmission of the technology and created favorable conditions for them to combine the career development with the safeguarding of the element.
(2) The traditional watertight-bulkhead technology of Chinese junks was recorded with modern technology in the forms of audio, video, image, and text digital files to keep track of every link of Chinese junk building in a scientific way. Census of bearers in relevant communities was taken to establish the personal file of bearers, straighten out the transmission system within families, and command their geographical distribution. In addition, representative and typical models of Chinese junks and raw materials for building Chinese junks were collected and preserved to ensure the sustainable development of the element.
(3) Two practice and transmission centers were established in Jinjiang, including the one in Jinjiang Vocational School, and three were established in Ningde Zhangwan middle and primary schools and relevant communities for bearers to train reserve talents. At present, there are over 50 registered apprentices. In May 2012, Ningde Jiaocheng Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks Research Center was founded. It has invited experts and scholars to attend three seminars and meetings.
—Activities for Improving Social Visibility and Public Awareness of Safeguarding
(1) Publicity activities were organized through establishing museums, publishing of commemorative stamp albums, and on-site demonstration, and so on, to increase the popularity of the watertight-bulkhead technology of Chinese junks among the public. At present, the Zhangwan Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks Exhibition Center of 500 square meters has been built and open to the public for free to exhibit the collected pictures, models, traditional tools, production process, etc.
(2) Mass media were adopted for the publicity efforts to introduce the basic concept of intangible cultural heritage and the historical and cultural connotation of the watertight-bulkhead technology of Chinese junks. More than 20 pieces of thematic news and 6 documentaries on the element have been broadcast on CCTV, Fujian TV, Quanzhou TV, Jinjiang TV, Ningde TV, and other mass media, which were warmly welcomed by the public.
(3) Extracurricular textbooks, like Concise Manual for Making Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks Models, have been compiled as supplements to the classroom teaching in primary and middle schools to promote relevant knowledge of the watertight-bulkhead technology of Chinese junks among students; work manuals, like Essentials of the watertight-bulkhead Technology of Chinese Junks, have been printed for the regular training sessions focusing on teaching young people traditional craftsmanship of Chinese junks in such vocational schools as Jinjiang Vocational School to expand the scope for selection of reserve talents.
—Problems to be Solved
(1) Serious aging problem of bearers and practitioners has made it a difficulty to realize intergenerational transmission in the safeguarding efforts. Relevant bearers are generally of little education. It takes a long time for apprentices to learn the technology but the income is meager, so young people show little interest in participating in the safeguarding of the element. Currently exploration has been made through combining the safeguarding work with vocational education to expand the scope for selection of reserve talents. However, it could not solve the problem in the intergenerational transmission of the element fundamentally based on the investment of funds and safeguarding mode. Besides, although the number of young people who are willing to learn the shipbuilding technology is increasing in Zhangwan and other places, the older generation of bearers is reluctant to take apprentices due to their low income. How to take effective measures to stabilize the team of bearers and optimize their age structure will be the core issue for solving the problem in intergenerational transmission.
(2) Imbalance of the investment is reflected in insufficient funds for the safeguarding of bearers. This is associated with the endangered situation of the element currently. A number of infrastructures including practice and transmission centers, and exhibition centers, have been constructed in the report period to provide opportunities of practical operation for bearers in relevant communities and ensure the frequency of practice and number of participants of the element. By providing venues and creating opportunities for bearers to practice the technology, this move is of great significance for stabilizing the existing team of bearers and expanding the scope for the selection of reserve talents. More financial aids should be provided for bearers in the future to ensure the vitality of the element.
(3) The sustainable development of the element is restrained by such external elements as fierce market competition and policy changes. For instance, under the impact of the trend to “build larger steel ship” in the shipbuilding industry, the lack of raw materials, and the surging costs, the safeguarding of the element has been hampered and the frequency of related practice has been lowered.
(4) The watertight-bulkhead technology of Chinese junks is a folk technology and most bearers are of poor educational background without any certificate, so it is difficult for them to gain the recognition of the public. At present, there is still a lack of relevant rules and regulations for more effective integration of the technology into modern market economy to improve its vitality through expanding the range of its application.

B.3c. Participation of communities, groups or individuals in the safeguarding activities

(1) Fujian Jinjiang Vocational School holds training sessions on the watertight-bulkhead technology of Chinese junks throughout the year to preliminarily usher the training of young talents into a systematic stage.
(2) Ningde Jiaocheng Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks Research Center and Jinjiang Fangcai Watertight-bulkhead Technology of Chinese Junks Training Center are mainly responsible for the transmission of the watertight-bulkhead technology of Chinese junks, carrying out investigations, researches, and academic activities, as well as establishing archives of the information collected.
(3) There are 46 employees working regularly in Ningde Zhangwan Shipyard and over 30 among them are of more than 20 years of experience in building wooden ships. The shipyard is mainly responsible for implementing safeguarding activities relevant to the watertight-bulkhead technology of Chinese junks.
(4) Under the leadership of Liu Xixiu, a representative bearer, Ningde Zhangwan Liu Xixiu workshop mainly carries out the building of Chinese junks and models. Meanwhile, the workshop organizes some teaching activities and has cultivated five young bearers.
(5) Exhibitions on making of model ships and ceremonies held when bearers are taking apprentices are organized in Zhangjiang Community, Zhangwan Village, and Haiying village in Zhangwan Town. The efforts can increase the social recognition and attention to the relevant communities, groups, and individuals and strengthen the culture identity and enthusiasm for the safeguarding of the element within the communities.
(6) Under the support of local governments, bearers in Jinjiang City and Ningde City participated in academic activities of relevant projects in the country. These activities for exchange of skills provide a chance for more people to learn about the element and deepen the participation of bearers in the safeguarding activities.

B.3d. Timetable and budget

—Government Sources:
2010-2011: compilation of Concise Manual for Making Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks Models (150,000 RMB)
2010-2011: financial aid for representative bearers (100,000 RMB)
2011-2014: procurement of equipment for establishing archive and database (200,000 RMB)
2011-2014: organization of ceremony for bearers of the watertight-bulkhead technology of Chinese junks to take apprentices (50,000 RMB)
2012: shooting and making the CD Manual Production of Chinese Junks (150,000 RMB)
2012-2014: organization of academic exchange activities on the watertight-bulkhead technology of Chinese junks (200,000 RMB)
2012-2014: collection of information and pictures of Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks (200,000 RMB)
2013-2014: production of outdoor advertising and registration of the website (200,000 RMB)
January 2013: Rents for the Shenhu Watertight-bulkhead Technology of Chinese Junks Training Center (200,000 RMB)
April 2013: Organization of relevant personnel to participate in the training courses on the safeguarding of elements inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List held in Guangzhou (5,000 RMB)
December 2013: Organization of relevant personnel to participate in the training courses on the safeguarding of elements inscribed on the UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists held in Guilin (1,000 RMB)
2014: organization of “Night of Chinese Junks” Party (100,000 RMB)
January 2014: making of the watertight-bulkhead technology of Chinese junks stamp album for publicity (60,000 RMB)
January 2014: Procurement of the equipment for transmission of the Watertight-bulkhead Technology of Chinese Junks (110,000 RMB)
January 2014: collection of “Feng Wang”, a Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks Model (30,000 RMB)
March 2014: collection of “Da Pai”, a Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks Model (13,000 RMB)
March 2014: collection of “Gan Zeng”, a Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks Model (26,000 RMB)
April 2014: costs for training of the watertight-bulkhead technology of Chinese junks in the training session of Jinjing Vocational School (40,000 RMB)
May 2014: procurement of equipment for data collection and field survey of the watertight-bulkhead technology of Chinese junks (26,000 RMB)
September 2014: collection of seven cross-section models of “Gan Zeng”, the Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks Model (90,000 RMB)
September 2014: collection of the Model of “Fu Yuan”, a cargo Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks in late Qing Dynasty (36,000 RMB)
October 2014: organization of the exhibition on models of the watertight-bulkhead technology of Chinese junks (89,000 RMB)
2014-2015: construction of Jinjiang Fangcai Watertight-bulkhead Technology of Chinese Junks Training and Practice Center (600,000 RMB)
2014-2015: annual financial aid for bearers (26,000 RMB)
January 2015: organization of bearers and members to visit Cen’s Wooden Ship Production Company and China Maritime Museum (80,000 RMB)
January 2015: decoration of the Jiaocheng Watertight-bulkhead Technology of Chinese Junks Training and Practice Center (80,000 RMB)
August to December 2015: decoration of the Watertight-bulkhead Technology of Chinese Junks Exhibition Center (800,000 RMB)
August to December 2015: organization of academic exchange activities (300,000 RMB, covering the costs for 5 people participating in the exchange activities in Wuhan University of Technology, inviting 5 experts, participating in “Bearers of Chinese Culture” program of CCTV)
—Comprehensive Sources:
2011-2013: building of Chinese Junks models and shooting the CD Chinese Junks Models (280,000 RMB, government investment, the raw materials were provided by the shipyard)
2011-2014: establishment of training centers and organization of training sessions for the transmission of the technology (200,000 RMB, government investment, the venues were provided by Zhangwan middle and primary schools, the tools and raw materials were provided by relevant groups and individuals)
2012: Founding of Ningde Jiaocheng Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks Research Center (150,000 RMB, covering 100,000 RMB government investment and 50,000 RMB raised by the members of the center)
2012-2014: organization of education and publicity activities like Bringing ICH into Schools and Communities (300,000 RMB, government investment, the venues and human resources were provided by schools and communities, bearers participated in the activities)
2013-2014: construction of Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks Exhibition Center (government investment 3,000,000 RMB and 2,000,000 RMB raised by communities and groups)
2012-2014: shooting of Documentary on Chinese Junks and making CD of Process of the Technology to Apply for Provincial-level Bearer (200,000 RMB, government investment, venues and human resources were provided by the communities and bearers)
2013: construction of Shipbuilding Base for Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks (government investment 200,000 RMB and community investment 100,000 RMB)
December 2015: preparation for building a large Chinese Junk with the ancient style. The junk, 45 meters long and 12 meters wide, will be designed by Wuhan University of Technology and constructed by representative bearers (500,000 RMB raised from the society)

B.3e. Overall effectiveness of the safeguarding activities

(1) Activities for rescuing records and digital preservation have been fully implemented and fruitful achievements have been made in filing. A large amount of fundamental audio, video, image, and text information has been collected and processed, especially the scientific record of culture element, technical process, technical feature, and tools in close relation to the core technology, providing original basis for the recovery of traditional craftsmanship.
(2) Ningde Jiaocheng Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks Research Center was founded. The funds from different channels including government investment and donation from communities and individuals are effectively managed under the supervision of different subjects of responsibility. The high efficiency in using the funds to a certain extent saves the social resources.
(3) Although Chinese junks are no longer in use in many regions, its craftsmanship is still transmitted. The building of models of Chinese junk is an effective way for improving the viability and the practice frequency of the element. Because the raw materials for building models of Chinese junk are very expensive and the comparatively complex procedure of traditional technology requires substantial investment of human power and material resources, it accounts for a large share of the safeguarding funds. At the current stage, building models of Chinese junk is still of great importance. Nevertheless, the contradiction between high investment and low output could still not be solved before further development of new materials and tools. In addition, the completed models of Chinese junks should be displayed together, which also increased the investment in infrastructure construction.
(4) The visibility of the element is significantly improved. Attracting more attention of the society, bearers are enjoying a higher social status. Meanwhile, the public is showing greater enthusiasm to the safeguarding activities. The establishment of the practice and transmission centers not only improves the frequency of the traditional practice, but also brings extra income to representative bearers to improve their living conditions. Nevertheless, compared with the investment in infrastructure, the financial aid for bearers is still insufficient and the results are not satisfactory. Therefore, although the number of bearers has increased, it is far from enough to change the endangered situation of the element.
(5) The popularity of the element in the public is improved through publicity activities and innovative ways to combine it with quality education and vocational education. The element is introduced to communities and schools. The limited funds are used for compiling textbooks, publishing monographs, and making publicity films and documentaries to improve the public awareness of the importance of the safeguarding efforts and create good social atmosphere for effective safeguarding and transmission.
(6) Academic research on the element is strengthened to provide intellectual support for scientific protection. Objectively, it is also conducive to higher efficiency in the use of resources. Meanwhile, the in-depth participation in academic exchange and research activities can improve their understanding on the element and fully mobilize communities and individuals in the safeguarding activities.

B.4. Community participation

As the main role in mastering and safeguarding craftsmanship, bearers are responsible for the practice, transmission, and development of craftsmanship. For example, Chen Fangcai, a national level representative bearer, built the wooden watertight-bulkhead Chinese junk “Princess Taiping”, and provincial level representative bearers Liu Xixiu and Liu Chaowei built more than 40 watertight-bulkhead Chinese junks in the past four years.
Communities mainly participated in the safeguarding work at two levels: one is to improve their awareness of safeguarding intangible cultural heritage through the participation in the activities to create good social atmosphere. For example, the construction of Zhangwan Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks Exhibition Center was proposed at the beginning by local communities who voluntarily donated money and goods and participated in the related work. They showed great enthusiasm for the safeguarding work which is effective; the other is to cooperate with bearers and researchers in related investigation by providing field information. Judging from our practice, a healthy social environment is beneficial to the implementation of safeguarding activities by bearers and related organizations.
The abovementioned communities, bearers, and groups have made a solemn promise that they are willing to continue to participate in the safeguarding and transmission of the element and try their best to recover and improve the vitality and viability of the watertight-bulkhead technology of Chinese junks.

B.5. Institutional context

a. the competent body(ies) involved in its management and/or safeguarding:
Bureau of Culture, Sports, Press and Publication of Jinjiang City, Fujian Province
Bureau of Culture, Sports, Press and Publication, Jiaocheng District, Ningde City, Fujian Province
Cultural Center of Jinjiang City, Fujian Province, China
Government of Zhangwan Town, Jiaocheng District, Ningde City, Fujian Province

b. the organization(s) of the community or group concerned with the element and its safeguarding:
Cultural and Sports Center of Shenhu Town, Jinjiang City, Fujian Province
Watertight-bulkhead Technology of Chinese Junks Training and Practice Center of Jinjiang Vocational School, Fujian Province
Fangcai Watertight-bulkhead Technology of Chinese Junks Training and Practice Center, Jinjiang City, Fujian Province
Zhangjiang Community, Zhangwan Town, Jiaocheng District, Ningde City, Fujian Province
Village Committee of Zhangwan Village, Zhangwan Town, Jiaocheng District, Ningde City, Fujian Province
Village Committee of Haiying Village, Zhangwan Town, Jiaocheng District, Ningde City, Fujian Province
Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks Research Center, Jiaocheng District, Ningde City, Fujian Province
Zhangwan Shipyard, Ningde City, Fujian Province
Liu Xixiu Studio, Zhangwan Town, Jiaocheng District, Ningde City, Fujian Province

B.6. Participation of communities in preparing this report

With the coordination of the Cultural Department of Fujian Province, Bureau of Culture, Sports, Press and Publication of Jinjiang Municipality, Bureau of Culture, Sports, Press and Publication of Jiaocheng District in Ningde Municipality, and relevant protection units, the work group of the report on the status of the element carried out investigations and collected suggestions inside related communities and groups, organized thematic researches participated by community members, bearers, experts, and scholars, and held symposiums to discuss the contents of the report and summarized the problems and experience of the safeguarding activities in the period. Chen Fangcai, Yang Liangdun, Chen Zhuchun, and Su Rendie from Jinjiang City, Liu Xixiu and Liu Chaowei from Zhangwan Town of Jiaocheng District of Ningde City, and other bearers actively participated in the drafting of the report and shared their specific work and experience in the safeguarding plan.
The Center for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Fujian Province contacted and arranged scholars and experts to attend the thematic investigation to provide professional guidance for the drafting of the report. In Mid-August 2015, Ningde Jiaocheng Watertight-bulkhead Chinese Junks Research Center organized the general meeting of all members. In total 160 members discussed the drafting of the report together. Local residents in Shenhu Town of Jinjiang and Zhangwan Town in Jiaocheng District of Ningde have actively participated in the investigation.
After the completion of the first draft of the report on the status of the element, relevant bearers, groups, and organizations also provided detailed suggestions for revision and then further confirmed the contents of the report.

C. Signature on behalf of the state party

Name

XIE Jinying

Title

Director General, Bureau for External Cultural Relations, Ministry of Culture, People's Republic of China

Date

27-05-2016

Signature

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