Mongolian calligraphy

    

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Inscribed in 2013 (8.COM) on the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding

© 2011 by "AC" Calligraphy center, "Great Hunnu" Pictures :

Mongolian calligraphy is the technique of handwriting in the Classical Mongolian script, which comprises ninety letters connected vertically by continuous strokes to create words. The letters are formed from six main strokes, known as head, tooth, stem, stomach, bow and tail, respectively. This meticulous writing is used for official letters, invitations, diplomatic correspondence and love letters; for a form of shorthand known as synchronic writing; and for emblems, logos, coins and stamps in ‘folded’ forms. Traditionally, mentors select the best students and train them to be calligraphers over a period of five to eight years. Students and teachers bond for life and continue to stimulate each other’s artistic endeavours. The rate of social transformation, urbanization and globalization have led to a significant drop in the number of young calligraphers. At present, only three middle-aged scholars voluntarily train the small community of just over twenty young calligraphers. Moreover, increases in the cost of living mean that mentors can no longer afford to teach the younger generation without remuneration. Special measures are therefore needed to attract young people to the traditional art of writing and to safeguard and revitalize the tradition of Mongolian script and calligraphy.

Periodic reporting

Periodic Report (USL)

A. Cover sheet

A.1.

State Party

Name of State Party

Mongolia

A.2.

Date of deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession

This information is available online.

2005-06-29

A.3.

Element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List that is the subject of this report

Name of element

Mongolian calligraphy

Inscribed in

2013

Submitting State(s)

Mongolia

A.4.

Reporting period covered by this report

Please indicate the period covered by this report.

01-01-2018 - 31-12-2021

A.5.

Other elements inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, if any

Please list all other elements from your country inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, together with the year of inscription; for multinational elements, please indicate the other States concerned.

Coaxing ritual for camels (2015)
Folk long song performance technique of Limbe performances - circular breathing (2011)
Mongol Biyelgee, Mongolian traditional folk dance (2009)
Mongol Tuuli, Mongolian epic (2009)
Mongolian traditional practices of worshipping the sacred sites (2017)
Traditional music of the Tsuur (2009)

A.6.

Executive summary of the report

Please provide an executive summary of the report that will allow general readers to understand the current status of the element, any positive or negative impacts of inscription, the implementation of safeguarding measures during the reporting period and their possible update for the following years.

After the inscription of the “Mongolian Calligraphy” on the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding, the Government of Mongolia has undertaken a wide range of safeguarding measures for identifying practitioners of this heritage element, establishing the registration and information database, studying, promoting and transmitting the heritage element to young generations. As a result of these measures, the number of practitioners and apprentices increased, and the viability of this heritage element has been enhanced.

Since 2003, by the 105th Decree of the Mongolian President, the first Sunday of May has been declared the “Mongolian National Day for Script” in Mongolia, and during the celebration of this day, calligraphy events and competitions have become a tradition.

In addition, by the 25th Decree of the President of Mongolia in 2017, the 1st day of September is celebrated as “Mother tongue day” and this day become a promotional and pride day of this heritage for the public. The initiative and involvement of practitioners, apprentices, government, and non-governmental organizations increased, and multifaceted dissemination and promotional activities organized, and as a result of these activities, the viability of this heritage element is being enhanced.

In 2020, the Government of Mongolia approved the “National Program of Mongolian Script III” by its 96th Resolution for implementation and the main aim of this national program is to conduct public affairs in Cyrillic and Mongolian scripts from 2025 and to enhance the usage of the Mongolian script in the general public.

Provisions related to the implementation of teaching and learning curricula for the national script were included in the Law on the Mongolian Language. For instance, on para 7.3 of this law, it was stated that “pupils in all types of secondary schools will be taught the national script by special curricula from the 6th grade until they graduate”. This provision is being effective since the 2015 and 2016 school years.

In addition, on para 7.4 of this law, it was stated that “Every university entrant and a person who starts working in the civil service first time will take the Mongolian language exam and at least quarter one part of the Mongolian language exam will be dedicated for examining the knowledge on the national script.

Formal and non-formal training in local schools, research conferences, exhibitions, and other events related to Calligraphy is being organized constantly and multifaceted activities are being organized by practitioners, apprentices, artists, and related government and non-government organizations for disseminating, promoting, and developing the Mongolian calligraphy. Within the period of the report following activities were organized:

By the 96th Resolution of the Mongolian Government approved on March 18 of 2020, implementation of the “National Program for Mongolian Script III” has started.

Mongolian script exam became one of the compulsory exams to enroll in the universities and colleges and the score of the exam became the main criteria to enroll.

Aiming to implement the Law on the Mongolian language, to increase the use of national script, to correspondence Mongolian state affairs in both Cyrillic and Mongolian script, to enhance the capability of public officers in Mongolian language and Mongolian script, the Mongolian Ministry of Culture and the Local governing administrations of the provinces are organizing a wide range of activities, for instance, campaigns for learning national script, exhibitions, and competitions were organized under the theme “Writing Mongol script-2025” by throughout the country for enhancing the viability of this heritage element and to promote this heritage to the public.

A.7.

Contact person for correspondence

Provide the name, address and other contact information of the person responsible for correspondence concerning the report.

Title (Ms/Mr, etc.)

Ms

Family name

Tserendorj

Given name

Tsolmon

Institution/position

Coordination Officer for Policy Implementation of Intangible Cultural Heritage Department of Cultural Heritage Ministry of Culture

Address

Ministry of Culture of Mongolia, Sukhbaatar district, 7th sub-district, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

Telephone number

+976 51-265617; +976 99057308

E-mail address

cch@monheritage.mn

Other relevant information


B. Status of element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List

Refer to the nomination file or to previous reports, if any, as the basis for reporting on the current status of the element, and report only on relevant changes since the date of inscription on the List or since the previous report. Nomination files, specific timetables and earlier reports, if any, are available at https://ich.unesco.org or from the Secretariat, upon request.

The State Party shall pay special attention to the role of gender and shall endeavour to ensure the widest possible participation of the communities, groups and, where applicable, individuals concerned as well as relevant non-governmental organizations during the process of preparing this report, and is asked to describe how it has done so in point D below.

B.1.

Social and cultural functions

Please explain the social and cultural functions and meanings of the element today, within and for its community, the characteristics of the bearers and practitioners, and any specific roles or categories of persons with special responsibilities towards the element, among others. Attention should be given to any relevant changes related to inscription criterion U.1 (‘the element constitutes intangible cultural heritage as defined in Article 2 of the Convention’).

Language and mentality are one of the main aspects of the existence of the Mongol nation. Therefore, the first Sunday of every May is being celebrated as "Mongolian national day for Script" and a multifaceted and wide range of activities are organized for studying, promoting the Mongolian Script, and transmitting it to the younger generation. Within the framework of the 105th and 25th Decree of the President of Mongolia in 2003 and 2017, the issues related to “Mongolian calligraphy” are reflected in the policy and action plan, and events and activities are organized to promote it to the public. Aiming to disseminate the Mongolian culture to foreign and domestic tourists, the tourist companies and calligraphers have jointly created new products and services and started selling and servicing for “Mongolian calligraphy” and this market is being expanded.

According to para 9.1.3 of the “Law on the Mongolian language”, the President of Mongolia has the right “To make a decree for using, learning, safeguarding and protecting the Mongolian language and script”, and within the frame of this right the Kh. Battulga a President of Mongolia has made the 46th Decree in 2018 for “Intensifying the Promotion of Traditional Mongolian Script” on the celebration of “Mongolian national day for script”. Indeed, this decree increases the importance of “Mongolian calligraphy” in society.

The “Mongolian Calligraphy” plays a special role not only in disseminating and cultivating the national consciousness and cultural heritage in the society but also in art, aesthetics, design, books, publications, advertisement, and urban culture.

B.2.

Assessment of its viability and current risks

Please describe the current level of viability of the element, particularly the frequency and extent of its practice, the strength of traditional modes of transmission, the demographics of practitioners and audiences and its sustainability. Please also identify and describe the threats, if any, to the element's continued transmission and enactment and describe the severity and immediacy of such threats, giving particular attention to any strengthening or weakening of the element’s viability subsequent to inscription.

Mostly, 10 to 17 years old high school pupils, university students, some elders, and freelance artists and calligraphers are actively learning calligraphy and most of those first-level learners are finding their inspiration to learn calligraphy through their interest to visit in the exhibitions and competitions. These exhibitions and competitions are playing a vital role in the viability of heritage. Although the number of apprentices and learners is increasing on the Mongolian calligraphy, and the involvement of government and non-governmental organizations in the activities associated with the dissemination and promotion of the heritage element has improved, risks still exist that might be affected to the transmission, safeguarding, and viability of the heritage. For instance:

- Inadequateness of research and study on Mongolian Calligraphy and the lack of researchers and scholars in this field.
- Lack of financial support in the research and analysis of the Mongolian script and Mongolian calligraphy, and its development and publication.
- Cooperation and interrelations of government, non-governmental organizations, and research institutes working in the field of research, training, safeguarding, and promotion of the Mongol script and Mongolian Calligraphy are weak.
- Rewarding and promoting activities are still inadequate for practitioners of this heritage element.
Consequently, the aforementioned lack may influence the safeguarding of this heritage element and could bring a negative impact in the future.

B.3.

Implementation of safeguarding measures

Please report on the safeguarding measures described in the nomination file, and previous report, if any. Describe how they have been implemented and how they have substantially contributed to the safeguarding of the element during the reporting period, taking note of external or internal constraints such as limited resources. Include, in particular, information on the measures taken to ensure the viability of the element by enabling the community to continue to practise and transmit it. Include the following detailed information concerning the implementation of the set of safeguarding measures or safeguarding plan:

B.3.a. Objectives and results

Indicate what primary objective(s) were addressed and what concrete results were attained during the reporting period.

During this reporting period 2018-2021, the following objectives were set to safeguard the "Mongolian Calligraphy":

1. To enhance the legal environment for the preservation and safeguarding of the Mongolian Calligraphy;
2. To develop research on Mongolian Calligraphy;
3. To identify effective methods of formal and non-formal training and to use them in practice;
4. To support the proposals and initiatives of governmental and non-governmental organizations, individuals, and practitioners aimed at disseminating and promoting the Mongolian Calligraphy;
5. To establish a specialized registry and database of Mongolian calligraphy and calligraphers;
6. To encourage and promote Calligraphers and increase the social value of Mongolian calligraphy.

Result:

As a result of these objectives formal and non-formal training, research conferences, discussion, exhibitions related to calligraphy were organized. In addition, safeguarding measures initiated by the government, non-government organizations, research institutes, and practitioners were supported, and practitioners of this heritage element were got some prizes. By implementing these multifaceted safeguarding measures, such as informal and non-formal training, research conferences, dissemination, and promotional activities public awareness the community involvement, and the public and non-governmental organizations initiative growth and the viability of this heritage element has enhanced.

The Civil service council of Mongolia and the National Statistics Office of Mongolia have jointly taken the survey determining the level of Mongolian script knowledge from the officers in civil service throughout the country. A total of 165 000 civil service officers have taken this survey and the result of the survey shows that 51 percent of civil service officers can correspond the state affairs in both Cyrillic and Mongolian Script. Mongolian script is the base of the “Mongolian calligraphy” and on the one hand, this result shows that 51 percent of civil service officers can learn the Mongolian calligraphy in the future. On the other hand, this result shows that how the Government of Mongolia is vigorously enhancing the viability of this heritage element from the fundament.

B.3.b. Safeguarding activities

List the key activities that were carried out during this reporting period in order to achieve these expected results. Please describe the activities in detail and note their effectiveness or any problems encountered in implementing them.

Key activities implemented during the reporting period:
1. Enhancing the legal environment

In July 2021, the Government of Mongolia approved a resolution to amend the Law on Protection of Cultural Heritage, which includes the following provisions related to regulations:
New provisions:
14.1.10. Safeguard and restore the authenticity and integrity of historical and cultural immovable monuments listed in the World Heritage's Tentative List and the World Heritage List, and allocate the state budget annually to implement the measures on protecting and strengthening the viability of intangible cultural heritage listed in the UNESCO List of ICH in Need of Urgent Safeguarding

2. To establish a specialized registration database
As of 2020, a total of 22 calligraphers registered in the Registration and information state database of cultural heritage in the National Center for Cultural Heritage. According to the unofficial registration, there are approximately 200 calligraphers and apprentices recognized.
3. In the framework of research
The exhibition “Bichig soyol” is organized annually and calligraphers’ calligraphy works and biography were published in the catalog of the exhibition. This catalog is updated and enriched during the exhibition.
The research conference “Four treasure of Script” has organized within the framework of the celebration of “Mongolian National Day for Script” in May of 2018,
4. Formal and non-formal training
Due to the Covid-19 pandemic, schools and universities have stopped in-person classes and online classes were conducted, at this time Kh. Battulga, a President of Mongolia has started teaching Mongolian script by teleclasses on TVs for aiming to strengthen the immunity of the Mongolian national language, script, culture, and values.
The National Council on Language Policy has organized a total of 3 times training in Ulaanbaatar city and several joint training in 21 provinces in cooperation with its branches.

Between 2019 and 2021, the Governing Administration and the Education, Culture and Arts Agency of Zavkhan province has implemented the program “My Mongolia-2026” for teaching Mongolian calligraphy for youths and increase the pride of people on the national script and Mongolian calligraphy.

By the 96th Resolution of the Mongolian Government, the “National program for Mongolian Language III” has approved in 2020 and the implementation has started. According to this national program, the state affairs will correspond in Cyrillic and Mongolian script from 2025 and all citizens of Mongolia will use Mongolian script

The “Erdenesiin Khuree” art and calligraphy center organized art therapy or calligraphy training for disabled people in Kharkhorin soum of Uvurkhangai province in 2021.

5. To support the practitioners
A Series of TV programs is being broadcast for the public for promoting practitioners and artists of Mongolian calligraphy,
Since 2013, the exhibition “Diligent writing” organized annually by the Mongolian Children’s Palace,
Calligrapher’s joint exhibition “Bichig Soyol” has been organized since 2015 annually and over 50 calligraphers actively participated in the exhibition every year,
In 2018, over 40 artists’ joint exhibition “Fascination in heart or enlightening holiness for future” including calligraphy, art painting, and Thangka painting has displayed,
In 2018, the "International Association of Mongolian Calligraphy" has founded and organized the international exhibition in cooperation with center "Bichig Soyol",
In 2018, Mongolian and Japanese calligrapher’s joint exhibition “Judag” has organized,
In 2019, Mongolian calligrapher’s joint exhibition has organized within the celebration of the “Mongolian National Day for Script”,
In 2019, the calligraphy called "The new moon" was selected for representing the "Mongolian calligraphy" in the series of a mark for cultural heritage and started on sale,
In 2020, Khaltmaa BATTULGA a President of Mongolia has started teaching Mongolian script teleclasses on Mongolian National Broadcasting and 7 other TVs and shared through Facebook page by the Office of the President of (https://www.facebook.com/presidentMGL),
Within the frame of the national campaign “Dual script writing- 2025”, the local museums are actively involved and giving a contribution to the dissemination and promotion of Mongolian calligraphy through their education and training centers. For instance, the training and research center of the Dornogovi Province Museum has displayed the exhibition “Khumuun bichig” in November of 2021 for the public,
In 2021, the center "Bichig Soyol" and the Office of the President of Mongolia jointly promoted the Mongolian Calligraphy for the public by displaying the calligraphy artworks of the most talented calligraphers on the information board of bus stops around the Ulaanbaatar city. This work has been publicly acclaimed.
In 2021, with the support of the Ministry of Culture, Mongolia the training and exhibition project "The secret history of Mongols" has been implemented. This project aimed to transmit Mongolian calligraphy through teaching to secondary school teachers in Ulaanbaatar city and to promote this heritage element to the public.
37 young apprentices and learners in Ulaanbaatar city and 21 provinces of Mongolia have jointly written the "Rule of Law" of United Nations in Mongolian calligraphy and hand over to Mr.Tapan Mishra, resident coordinator of UN in Mongolia, in November 2021.

6. To encourage and promote Calligraphers and increase the social value of Mongolian calligraphy.

Calligrapher D.Battumur, T.Jamiyansuren, and D.Batbayar were awarded by “Master calligrapher” medal in 2018 by the “Association of Mongolian modern calligraphers”.
Master practitioner D.Batbayar has been included in the “National List of Intangible cultural heritage practitioners” approved by the 475th Resolution by the Government of Mongolia in 2019.
In 2021, B.Elbegzaya researcher and editor of "Khumuun bichig" newspaper have awarded the "State honored cultural worker" medal by the Decree of the President of Mongolia for making a huge contribution to the safeguarding, development, and dissemination of the Mongolian script.
The center “Bichig soyol” and newspaper “Khumuun bichig” jointly organize two competitions every February, first one is the state competition for calligraphers, and the second one is the competition "Foremost Traditional Script Writers of Mongolia” for high school pupils and adults.
7. Encountered problems during this period of reporting:
Budget and financial support for the research and study of the calligraphy and its publication is still inadequate.
Cooperation and interrelations of government, non-governmental organizations, and research institutes working in the field of research, training, safeguarding, and promotion of the Mongol script and Mongolian Calligraphy are weak.

B.3.c. Participation of communities, groups or individuals in the safeguarding activities

Describe how communities, groups or, if appropriate, individuals as well as relevant non-governmental organizations have effectively participated, including in terms of gender roles, in the safeguarding measures. Describe the role of the implementing organization or body (name, background, etc.) and the human resources that were available for implementing safeguarding activities.

Article 34 of the Law on Protection of Cultural Heritage defines for the first time the "rights and duties of intangible cultural heritage practitioner", Article 34.1.1, Section 2 states that the practitioners "shall be to receive financial support to protect, transmit, and recreate the intangible cultural heritage, under the necessary circumstances”, and Article 34.2 Section 2 states practitioners "to teach students, transmit to next generation, to disseminate, promote, provide assistance to record information, and conduct registration of intangible cultural heritage".

In this regard, practitioners have been actively involved in safeguarding, transmitting, studying, restoring, and promoting the “Mongolian calligraphy” heritage through the media, radio, and television.

Following practitioners, government and non-governmental organizations are actively involved in the elaboration of the report. For instance, practitioners as J.Batbayar, B.Elbegzaya, T.Jamiyansuren, D.Ganbaatar, and organizations as, center “Bichig Soyol”, “AC Calligraphy center”, “Association of Mongolian modern calligraphers” /S.Mend-Ooyo/, National Council for Language Policy, Ministry of Culture, Ministry of Education and Science, Government implementing agency Culture and Art Authority, Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO, Education Agency of Ulaanbaatar city, Institute of Language and Literature in Mongolian Academy of Sciences, National University of Mongolia /School of Mongolian language and culture/, Mongolian University of Education, “Khumuun bichig” newspaper. MONTSAME, National Association of Mongolian language teachers and researchers, Mongolian National Library and Public Library of Ulaanbaatar city.

In addition, the aforementioned local governors, museums, and locals, individuals are being involved actively in the safeguarding activities.

B.3.d. Timetable

Indicate in a timetable when each activity was implemented.

- The competition and exhibition called “Diligent writing" have been organized annually since 2013 by the Mongolian Children’s Palace for young generations.
- Calligrapher’s joint exhibition “Bichig Soyol” has been organized since 2015 annually and over 50 calligraphers actively participated in the exhibition every year.
- In 2018, over 40 artists’ joint exhibition “Fascination in heart or enlightening holiness for future” including the calligraphy, art painting, and Thangka painting has displayed.
- By the 96th Resolution of the Mongolian Government approved on March 18 of 2020, implementation of the “National Program for Mongolian Script III” has started.
- Between 2018 and 2021, the editorial section of the newspaper “Khumuun bichig” has organized a competition called "Fine writing” throughout the country.
- In 2019, the Mongolian Academy of Sciences has organized the research conferences called “Usage of the national script and cultural heritage” and “History and modernity of Mongol blacksmith art”.
- In 2019, the calligraphy called “The new moon” was selected for representing the "Mongolian calligraphy" in the series of a mark for cultural heritage.
- In 2021, the exhibition "Bichig soyol" was displayed and calligraphers' calligraphy works and biography were published in the catalog of the exhibition. This catalog is updated and enriched during the exhibition annually.
- In 2021, the center “Bichig Soyol” and the Office of the President of Mongolia jointly promoted the Mongolian Calligraphy for the public by displaying the calligraphy artworks of the most talented calligraphers on the information board of bus stops around the Ulaanbaatar city.
- The "Erdenesiin Khuree" art and calligraphy center organized art therapy or calligraphy training for disabled people in Kharkhorin soum of Uvurkhangai province in-between September 13 and October 30 of October 2021. The center is supported by the Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO, the Swiss Cooperation Development Agency and the France Embassy in Mongolia and Alliance Française.
- 37 young apprentices and learners in Ulaanbaatar city and 21 provinces of Mongolia have jointly written the "Rule of Law" of United Nations in Mongolian calligraphy and hand over to Mr.Tapan Mishra, resident coordinator of UN in Mongolia, in November 2021.

B.3.e. Budget expenditures

Provide the detailed amounts of the funds used for the implementation of each activity (if possible, in US dollars), identifying the funding source for each (governmental sources, in-kind community inputs, etc.).

- Since 2013, the exhibition called “Diligent writing” was organized annually and totally spent 1800$.
- Since 2015, calligrapher’s joint exhibition "Bichig Soyol" organized annually and a total of 2000 $ spent for this exhibition since 2018.
- In 2018, over 40 artists’ joint exhibition “Fascination in heart or enlightening holiness for future” including the calligraphy, art painting, and Thangka painting has displayed and a total of 5000$ has spent.
- In 2019, "The new moon" series of the mark in Mongolian Calligraphy was organized and a total of 3000$ spent.
- 2018-2021, “Foremost Traditional Script Writers of Mongolia” Mongolian calligraphy organized annually and a total of 4000$ has been spent
- 2018-2021, State competition “Fine writing” organized annually and a total of 9000$ has been spent.
- In 2019, the Mongolian Academy of Sciences has organized the research conferences called "Usage of the national script and cultural heritage" and "History and modernity of Mongol blacksmith art" and a total of 5000$ has spent.
- In 2020, the Government of Mongolia approved the "National Program of Mongolian Script III" by its 96th Resolution, and as of so far total of 8000 $ has been spent for its implementation.
- In 2021, with the financial support of the Ministry of Culture, Mongolia, the project “The secret history of Mongols” including calligraphy training and exhibition has implemented by the center "Bichig Soyol" and a total of 10 000$ has spent.
The exhibition "Bichig Soyol" was organized in 2021 and a total of 5000$ has been spent.
In 2021, selected calligraphy works by the best Calligraphers were displayed on the information board of bus stops around the Ulaanbaatar city for promoting Mongolian Calligraphy, and a total of 5000$ has spent.
A total of 57800$ has been spent within the period of the report.

B.3.f. Overall effectiveness of the safeguarding activities

Provide an overall assessment of the effectiveness of the activities undertaken to achieve the expected results and of the efficiency of the use of funds for implementing the activities. Please indicate how the activities contributed to achieving the results and whether other activities could have contributed better to achieving the same results. Also indicate whether the same results could have been achieved with less funding, whether the human resources available were appropriate and whether communities, groups and individuals could have been better involved.

After the inscription of “Mongolian calligraphy” on the UNESCO’s List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding in 2013, numerous initiatives and positive approaches came to safeguard this heritage element. According to the 105th Decree of the President of Mongolia, the first Sunday of every May has started celebrated as “Mongolian National Day for Script” since 2003, and by the 25th Decree of the President of Mongolia in 2017, the 1st of September has been declared as “National mother tongue day”.

On these Decrees, it has appealed to increase the frequency of the news, information, publications, and programs associated to mother tongue, culture, history, traditional culture, and customs for promoting the mother language, increase the pride of mother language and disseminating for the public. Indeed, this appeal has influenced the increase of the involvement and initiative of practitioners, apprentices, learners, government and non-governmental organizations, and those multifaceted activities organized for disseminating and promoting this heritage played the main role in the raising of awareness of the general public.

It has stated on the Decree that on the celebration of “Mother Tongue Day”, the universities, vocational education and training institutions, secondary schools, and preschools in Mongolia should conduct the first hour of the school year classes within the subjects of the Mongolian language, Mongolian literature, and Mongolian history, and the state central administration of the Education shall responsible this issue further. Indeed, this became the basis of the learning and study of Mongolian calligraphy.

The exhibition "Bichig Soyol" is being organized since 2014 and it has expanded as an international exhibition within the last years. In 2019, the Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Sports of Mongolia, Government implementing agency Culture and Arts Authority, the Union of Mongolian Artists, and center “Bichig Soyol” have jointly organized the exhibition and calligraphers from the Ulaanbaatar city, Arkhangai, Bulgan, Dornod, Dundgovi, Sukhbaatar, Selenge and Khuvsgul provinces of Mongolia, and Russian Federation and the People’s Republic of China were participated by their calligraphy works.

The registration and information database of cultural heritage has been established and regularly updated and the legal environment has improved. As of 2020, 22 practitioners of this heritage element registered in the State registration and information database of cultural heritage, and according to unofficial number, a total of 200 apprentices are learning and actively involved in activities associated with Mongolian calligraphy. Indeed, this number shows that the number of practitioners and apprentices is increasing year by year.

In 2020, the Government of Mongolia has made historic decision that to establish the Ministry of Culture separately from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Sports. The newly established ministry has 7 departments, and one is the Cultural Heritage Department. The department is responsible for managing the implementation of policies, plans and laws for the protection of cultural heritage, developing procedures, rules and legal documents required for their implementation, and providing advice and all-round support. This department has a coordination officer for policy implementation of intangible cultural heritage.

In 2021, with the support of the Ministry of Culture, Mongolia the training and exhibition project “The secret history of Mongols” has been implemented. This project aimed to transmit Mongolian calligraphy through teaching to secondary school teachers in Ulaanbaatar city and to promote this heritage element to the public. Within the frame of this project, a total of 90 teachers including 69 public schools, 13 private schools, and 2 vocational education and training institutions in Ulaanbaatar city were taught the “Mongolian calligraphy”.

C. Update of the safeguarding measures

C.1.

Updated safeguarding plan

Please provide an update of the safeguarding plan included in the nomination file or in the previous report. In particular provide detailed information as follows:

  1. a. What primary objective(s) will be addressed and what concrete results will be expected?
  2. b. What are the key activities to be carried out in order to achieve these expected results? Describe the activities in detail and in their best sequence, addressing their feasibility.
  3. c. How will the State(s) Party(ies) concerned support the implementation of the updated safeguarding plan?

In "VISION-2050" Long-term Development Policy of Mongolia, National Action Plan of Government of Mongolia, Guidelines for Development of Mongolia in 2021-2025, "Guidelines for Improving the Laws and Regulations of Mongolia until 2024," and Strategic Plan of the Ministry of Culture for 2021-2024 incorporates organizing the activities in the field of identification, registration, studying, creation of database, as well as transmission, distribution, promotion the intangible cultural heritage and supporting, protecting, educating, and identifying its practitioners. They aim to support the transmission of traditional knowledge to future generations and provide a system of support and incentives for groups, communities, and practitioners who conducted apprenticeship training.
A legal working group has been established and begun to conduct relevant research, to submit an independent law on "Protection of Intangible Cultural Heritage" to submit to the State Great Khural by 2023.
Updated safeguarding plan has done in accordance with policy documents, especially along with the 1st goal of the "VISION-2050" as “Shared National Values” and its objective 1.3 as “Mongolian language and script”.

I Stage (2021-2030): The period to acquire a quality education in the Mongolian language and script and ensure their proficient use.
Provide quality education in the Mongolian language and script to students at educational institutions of all levels and increase the population’s proficiency in their mother tongue.
Create a favorable environment for the population and foreigners to learn the Mongolian language and script and ensure the proper use of the Mongolian language and script in officials and public affairs.
Support scientific organizations to preserve the usage of the national language and script and carry out its renewal.
Introduce scholarship programs to support foreigners willing to learn the Mongolian language and script and create a national test program for the Mongolian language for international students.
On the 1.3.8. “VISION-2050”, it was stated that “to increase the usage of “Mongolian Script” and increase the number of books, newspapers, magazines in Mongolian script and to establish publishing house besides improving and supporting the digital use of Mongolian language and script.
Purpose of the plan is:
Update the records, research, and documentation of Mongolian calligraphy, to study, promote and strengthen its viability through formal and non-formal training, raise public awareness, and provide the preparation to transfer from the List of Urgent Safeguarding to the Representative List of ICH of Humanity.
The aim of the updated plan:
Update practitioners registration and research,
Increase knowledge, understanding, transmission and promotion of Mongolian Calligraphy,
Intensify research,
Strengthen the viability.
Expected results:
Practitioners' records and surveys will be updated regularly.
Public awareness and the number of researchers of this heritage and interested individuals will be increased.
The viability of the heritage will be strengthened.
The number of students and their level of skills will be enhanced.
Based on the findings of the assessments and inspections, appropriate safeguarding measures will be implemented.
The implementation of the aforementioned activities will determine the possibility of transferring the heritage from the List of ICHs in Need of Urgent Safeguarding to the Representative list.

C.2.

Timetable for future actitivies

Provide a timetable for the updated safeguarding plan (within a time-frame of approximately four years).

From 2022 to 2025, the following activities are planning to be implemented in cooperation with governmental and non-governmental organizations, researchers, research institutes, local governments, and the public to safeguard and strengthen the "Mongolian calligraphy" heritage:
1. Research:
-To conduct the research and study on the Mongolian calligraphy,
-To make research to design the glyph and fonts of Mongolian calligraphy,
-To organize research conference “Defining the development of Calligraphy”,
-To organize the research conference “Sustainable development of Mongolian calligraphy”.
2. Training:
-In accordance with the “National Program of Mongolian Script III”, the Mongolian calligraphy training will be organized into three categories, amateurs, secondary school students, and professionals.
-Mongolian calligraphy books, textbooks, manuals, and visual aids will be published.
-To train 10 practitioners into the level of Master practitioners and to train trainers of Calligraphy,
-Train postgraduate students (master and Ph.D.)
3.Registration and documentation:
-Create short digital content and make the promotional program on Mongolian calligraphy
-Establish registration and information database of calligraphy work and calligrapher of Mongolian calligraphy.
4.Promotion:
-Organize professional art and promotional photo exhibition on calligraphy and publish a catalog,
-Support the social and public voluntary events related to Mongolian calligraphy.
5.Monitoring:
-In 2022-2025, the sustainability of this heritage will be determined by conducting a comparison of the annual safeguarding activities, especially the quality of apprenticeship training and the number of practitioners and apprentices on the "Mongolian Calligraphy" heritage.

C.3.

Budget for future activities

Provide the estimates of the funds required for implementing the updated safeguarding plan (if possible, in US dollars), identifying any available resources (governmental sources, in-kind community inputs, etc.).

1. Research and study on the Mongolian calligraphy in 2022-2025. Budget to be sent is 8000 $.
2. To make research to design the glyph and fonts of Mongolian calligraphy in 2022-2023. Budget to be spent is 6000$.
3. To organize the research conference “Defining the development of Calligraphy” in 2022. Budget to be spent is 3000$.
4. To organize the research conference “Sustainable development of Mongolian calligraphy” in 2022. Budget to be spent is 3000$.
5.In accordance with the “National Program of Mongolian Script III”, the Mongolian calligraphy training will be organized into three categories, amateurs, secondary school students, and professionals in 2022-2025. Budget to be spent is 7000$.
6. Publish manuals, textbooks, and visual aids will be published in 2023. Budget to be spent is 2000$.
7. To train 10 practitioners into the level of Master practitioners and to train trainers of Calligraphy in 2023. Budget to be spent is 9000$.
8. Train postgraduate students (master and Ph.D.) in 2023. Budget to be spent is 4000 $.
9. Create short digital content and make the promotional program on Mongolian calligraphy in 2024. Budget to be spent is 4500$.
10. Establish registration and information database of calligraphy work and calligrapher of Mongolian calligraphy in 2023-2024. Budget to be spent is 3500$.
11. Organize professional art and promotional photo exhibition on calligraphy and publish a catalog in 2022-2024. Budget to be spent is 6000$.
12.Support the social and public voluntary events related to Mongolian calligraphy in 2022-2025. Budget to be spent is 4000$.

C.4.

Community participation

Please describe how communities, groups and individuals, as well as relevant non-governmental organizations have been involved, including in terms of gender roles, in updating the safeguarding plan, and how they will be involved in its implementation.

The updated safeguarding plan was developed in accordance with the planning and scheduling of policy documents such as strategic plans by the Ministry of Culture, National Centre for Cultural Heritage, Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO, the Government implementing agency Culture and Arts Authority, “AC” calligraphy studio, center "Bichig Soyol", Association for modern calligraphers, the newspaper "Khumuun bichig" and practitioner representatives of older and younger generations, relevant government organizations, opinions of scientists and researchers, and the "Law on Protection of Cultural Heritage" implementing by the Government, "VISION-2050" Long-term Development Policy of Mongolia, National Action Plan of Government of Mongolia, Guidelines for Development of Mongolia in 2021-2025, Guidelines for Improving the Laws and Regulations of Mongolia until 2024, and Strategic Plan of the Ministry of Culture for 2021-2024.

The Ministry of Culture will create an appropriate legal environment, formulate policies, allocate and monitor the necessary budgets into the state budget, and provide guidance and methodology for the implementation of national activities by the Culture and Arts Authority. The National Center for Cultural Heritage will organize multifaceted safeguarding activities, such as organizing national competitions, scientific conferences among practitioners and raising public awareness campaigns, creating series, documentaries, books, CDs, and intensifying research, and organizing inventories and inspections.

The activities included in the plan shall be organized in consultation and co-operation with specific, other, and non-governmental organizations, researchers, and the public according to the Law on the Protection of Cultural Heritage.

Practitioners are obliged to transmit, promote, and inherit at the national and international levels and are necessary to take part in other safeguarding plans actively.

C.5.

Institutional context

Please report on the institutional context for the local management and safeguarding of the element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, including:

  1. a. the competent body(ies) involved in its management and/or safeguarding;
  2. b. the organization(s) of the community or group concerned with the element and its safeguarding.

a. Ministry of Culture, Mongolia
Address: Ministry of Culture of Mongolia, Sukhbaatar district, 7th sub-district, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

Byambasuren DAVAATSEREN
Director of Cultural Heritage Department
Phone: + 976- 51-265609
Fax: 976-
Email: davaatseren@moc.gov.mn
Web:moc.gov.mn
Email: info@moc.gov.mn
Tserendorj TSOLMON
Coordination Officer for Policy Implementation of Intangible Cultural Heritage
Phone: + 976- 51-265617
Fax: 976-
Email: tsolmon@moc.gov.mn
Phone: + 976- 99057308

National Center for Cultural Heritage
Address: Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Khan-Uul district, 21st khoroo, Buyant Ukhaa 2 district,
Galbadrakh ENKHBAT
Director National Cultural Heritage Center
Phone: + 976-99168200
+ 976- 70110877
Fax: 976-11-312735
Email: enkhbatcch@gmail.com info@ncch.gov.mn
Web: http://ncch.gov.mm/

Arslan SARUUL
Specialist in charge of World Heritage Sites, Department for Protection and Rescue of Cultural Heritage in Emergency Situation in National Center for Cultural Heritage
Phone: + 976- 99030405
Email: saku_tuntic@yahoo.com

Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO

Khoskhuu IDER
Programme Specialist for Culture
Phone: + 976-70105652
+ 976-95959542
Fax: 976-11-322612
Email: kh.ider@unesco.mn

Practitioner J.BATBAYAR

Tel: + 976-99098237
E-mail: batbayarjalair1959@gmail.com

D. Participation of communities in preparing this report

Describe the measures taken to ensure the widest possible participation of the communities, groups and, where applicable, individuals concerned as well as relevant non-governmental organizations during the process of preparing this report.

Under order No. A/73 of 2021 of the Minister of Culture of Mongolia on the "Establishment of a Working Group", a working group was created to elaborate and prepare a "Report on the Status of Elements inscribed on UNESCO List of ICHs in Need of Urgent Safeguarding." The working group was incorporated from the Ministry of Culture, the Mongolian National Commission, the Culture and Arts Authority, and the National Centre for Cultural Heritage and related researchers and scientists.

During the preparation of this periodic report, the working group has done 4 times meetings for collecting data and information from practitioners and cultural organizations in 21 provinces and 9 districts of Ulaanbaatar and for analyzing the gathered data in accordance with the questionnaires of periodic reporting form, and for elaborating the updated safeguarding plan for this heritage element.

Practitioner D.Batbayar, “AC” calligraphy center of his group of apprentices, center “Bichig soyol”, “Association of Modern Calligraphers”, master calligrapher T.Jamiyansuren, Mongolian script newspaper “Khumuun bichig”, practitioners and artists involved in the elaboration of this report.

E. Signature on behalf of the State Party

The report should be signed by an official empowered to do so on behalf of the State, and should include his or her name, title and the date of submission.

Name

NOMIN Chinbat

Title

Minister of Culture, Mongolia

Date

10-12-2021

Signature

NOMIN Chinbat

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Periodic Report (USL)

A. Cover sheet

A.1.

State Party

Name of State Party

Mongolia

A.2.

Date of deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession

This information is available online.

2005-06-29

A.3.

Element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List that is the subject of this report

Name of element

Mongolian calligraphy

Inscribed in

2013

A.4.

Reporting period covered by this report

Please indicate the period covered by this report.

2014 - 2017

A.5.

Other elements inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, if any

Please list all other elements from your country inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, together with the year of inscription; for multinational elements, please indicate the other States concerned.

Coaxing ritual for camels (2015)

A.6.

Executive summary of the report

Please provide an executive summary of the report that will allow general readers to understand the current status of the element, any positive or negative impacts of inscription, the implementation of safeguarding measures during the reporting period and their possible update for the following years.

By inscribing Mongolian calligraphy on the Urgent Safeguarding List the urge to learn and study Mongolian national script among the youth has increased, the Government’s implementation of testing under the Language Law of 2015 is benefitting the children. Children are studying rigorously to learn various types of scripts on a national level. During the course of the report the following have been achieved:
- The Presidential Decree No.105 of 2003 on “Celebration of national day of Mongolian script”, Decree No.155 of 2010 on “Actions on increasing the use of Mongolian script in official settings” have been in effect.
- The Government of Mongolia passed Resolution No. 196 2nd National Program “Mongolian Script”, which was implemented throughout 2008-2015.
- Under the “Mongolian Language Law” passed by the Parliament, Government’s Resolution No.37 of 2013 general education graduates, those enrolling universities and colleges are required to take Mongolian language written test, the results of the test serving as admissions requirement.
- “Diligent writing” national competition has been held annually.

A.7.

Contact person for correspondence

Provide the name, address and other contact information of the person responsible for correspondence concerning the report.

Title (Ms/Mr, etc.)

Ms

Family name

Arslan

Given name

Saruul

Institution/position

Division of Intangible Cultural Heritage Center for Cultural Heritage

Address

Central Palace of Culture B
Sukhbaatar square 3
Ulaanbaatar 210620a
1st khooro
P.B.-269
Ulaanbaatar 210648

Telephone number

+976 99099842; +976 99030405

E-mail address

ichfr@monheritage.mn

Other relevant information


B. Status of element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List

Refer to the nomination file or to previous reports, if any, as the basis for reporting on the current status of the element, and report only on relevant changes since the date of inscription on the List or since the previous report. Nomination files, specific timetables and earlier reports, if any, are available at https://ich.unesco.org or from the Secretariat, upon request.

The State Party shall pay special attention to the role of gender and shall endeavour to ensure the widest possible participation of the communities, groups and, where applicable, individuals concerned as well as relevant non-governmental organizations during the process of preparing this report, and is asked to describe how it has done so in point D below.

B.1.

Social and cultural functions

Please explain the social and cultural functions and meanings of the element today, within and for its community, the characteristics of the bearers and practitioners, and any specific roles or categories of persons with special responsibilities towards the element, among others. Attention should be given to any relevant changes related to inscription criterion U.1 (‘the element constitutes intangible cultural heritage as defined in Article 2 of the Convention’).

During the course of the report province, city, rural schools held formal and informal trainings, juried exhibitions, there has been an increase in the number of learners, improvements in the quality and proficiency of artists as well as entry into the social consumption, appearing on markets and store shelves and calligraphy services are being provided. Involvement from provincial and local authorities and administrative bodies in activities to revive, cultivate and pass down traditions of calligraphy has increased and entities such as the Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Sports, National Center for Cultural Heritage, Mongolian National Library, “AC” calligraphy center, Mongolian Contemporary Calligraphy Association, Humuun Bichig newspaper, Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO, Mongolian Writers Union, Ulaanbaatar Public Library, Humanities division of NUM School of Sciences, National Language Policy Council, Mongolian National History Museum are taking part in the National script celebration. Introducing and popularizing calligraphy artists raise public’s valuation of them, and interests to study calligraphy and creative enthusiasm is resurging among the youth. The use of calligraphy in the everyday life of Ulaanbaatar city such as getting their names written, product labels and logo, television programs, exhibition has been significant and has had a positive influence on the masses. Universities are carrying out researches on calligraphy.
Although a short period of time, over the last four years public’s understanding of Mongolian calligraphy reached timely results and recognition and could be assessed as having begun serving its role, significance and use among the masses.

B.2.

Assessment of its viability and current risks

Please describe the current level of viability of the element, particularly the frequency and extent of its practice, the strength of traditional modes of transmission, the demographics of practitioners and audiences and its sustainability. Please also identify and describe the threats, if any, to the element's continued transmission and enactment and describe the severity and immediacy of such threats, giving particular attention to any strengthening or weakening of the element’s viability subsequent to inscription.

As Mongolia shifted into a democratic society people’s mindset revitalized and in conjunction it was a delightful and historical event that Mongolian calligraphy was inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List. At this time of social change various eastern and western languages, cultural influences were brought in, travelling and studying in foreign countries had increased, children were taught foreign languages and schools were established, and even though teachings of Mongol calligraphy and competitions have not been funded, the nation’s conscience was influenced thus involving their children has been the basis for its existence. It is praiseworthy that the youth participate in the calligraphy competition held annually since 2014. National educational organizations began teaching Mongolian script and testing those above 8th grade thus having a significant impact on preparing the young generation. Because general education provides valuable influence on obtaining knowledge of calligraphy in the future informal educational organizations are fulfilling their roles by organizing various competitions and tournaments, participating in calligraphy competitions across Asian and European thus exposing our cultural heritage internationally. The age range of those interested in inheriting is from 11 to 70 years old, learning and practicing formally and informally, voluntarily. This is a strong indicator that the element will be inherited steadily and certainly. In this time of social change it is lack of economic and financial support that is having large impact, otherwise the public and the youth’s eagerness to learn and competence has steadily improved over the past four years.
It is undeniably dissatisfactory work by cultural heritage organizations, universities and institutes, and government organizations not having clear policies on culture had an effect on society of slowing down the eagerness and enthusiasm coming from below.
In reality policy on development and budgeting of arts and cultural sector is still lacking today. Talented calligraphers have been promoting Mongolian national arts, aesthetics, culture and education over the last 20 years, serving the public with their work and exhibitions, actively advising, helping students and enthusiasts. To develop Mongolian calligraphy policy based contributions, human resource preparations as well as economic and financial support from professional organizations, universities, and language institutes would make swift improvements. Generally over the last 4 years cultured and educated students, artists, language specialists and graphic designers have been educating themselves on small budgets based on their interests and intellect. With the inadequate human resources the studies are especially focusing on students, enthusiasts and young people. Efforts among colleagues have increased by 30% compared to 4 years ago. Most young people are interested and eager to learn. Children and young people keen on researching, learning and passing down Mongolian cultural heritage, thus promoting contemporary brush calligraphy locally and internationally with the aim of developing it into art, organize exhibitions each year. Important objectives are national level competitions, preparing professional and skilled human resources at universities. In order to preserve and safeguard intangible cultural heritage lecture competitions on historical and cultural research should be announced, because there is a rising need to bring in, instruct and to collaborate with professional organizations based on policies, we are facing new objectives to reflect such actions in government policies. Although a short period of time over the last 4 years understanding of Mongolian calligraphy has reached timely results, recognition among the masses and started catering to societal demands, only economic and human resources is stalling and there is an inadequacy of faculty. Activities to promote and familiarize the public with Mongolian calligraphy meets the requirements but fails to meet the end results of the objectives. Although exhibitions and competitions are being held annually, the inability to prepare a young workforce could slow down the energy, inception of activities and become an encumbrance so it suggested that trainings and preparations of workforce take place immediately. The training and research should be based on scientifically formed teaching methodologies. Accurate policy on intangible cultural heritage, Mongolian calligraphy and enforcement of the law on culture is establishing a positive notion, thus promoting the importance of learning, researching, taking pride and spreading it through art and artwork. However, not keeping it amongst the few in the arts and cultural sector but rather actions to attract the public as well as foreign nationals is important. Within the Government policy there has been no policy to improve or a resolution reached, and concrete guidance and instructions that reaches young people is still lacking. When discussing preservation and safeguarding it is insufficient to mainly focus on interests and efforts of those who have done research on cultural heritage for years, cultural inheritors, small number of people who have become national pride and young people working in teams. In the years of social change, community involvement has been observed through everyday use and through exhibitions. It only encompassed the thinking calligraphy is something great and worth knowing.Students have expressed their interests and whole classrooms are subscribing to Mongolian script newspapers, reviving confidence amongst the public. In the future, to preserve intangible cultural heritage those passing down the culture will improve on the creativity and on exhibitions, artworks, research publications and interviews for the public. If governmental and cultural organizations that support, within the framework of the government, national conscience and written culture devise and submit their policy, decisions and resolutions in accordance with the guidelines then collaborations will ensue and contribution will instantly improve. Having the goal of spreading Mongolian calligraphy among the youth, to reach certain results, by providing foundational knowledge about the art through television, media and introducing and instilling sense of pride in young people nurtures them with pride and is reaching end results through systematic flow of information. Effort of non-governmental organizations and independent artists are developing, dispersing the heritage and familiarizing the public with it. To improve further there are possibilities to prepare a professional workforce, print books and publications and exchange experiences with similar cultural organizations from abroad on publication materials and creative learning from artists.
Focus on actions to prepare a professional workforce by universities. For example in the years 2013-2017 from the National University of Mongolia 102 students graduated with a degree in Mongolian language, study of traditional script and teaching, and this is a small number.

B.3.

Implementation of safeguarding measures

Please report on the safeguarding measures described in the nomination file, and previous report, if any. Describe how they have been implemented and how they have substantially contributed to the safeguarding of the element during the reporting period, taking note of external or internal constraints such as limited resources. Include, in particular, information on the measures taken to ensure the viability of the element by enabling the community to continue to practise and transmit it. Include the following detailed information concerning the implementation of the set of safeguarding measures or safeguarding plan:

B.3.a. Objectives and results

Indicate what primary objective(s) were addressed and what concrete results were attained during the reporting period.

Objectives:
• Research the history of Mongolian calligraphy, promote to the public and disperse understanding about the art.
• Organize traditional apprenticeship, in-class learning and lectures for the next generation of calligraphy.
• Provide support and celebrate the inheritors.
• Increase the public’s knowledge and information about calligraphy and set an objective to collaborate with them.
Results:
• Research is carried out and presented on historic traditions, heritage and language treasure database of Mongolian calligraphy.
• By broadening formal and informal education of Mongolian calligraphy the number calligraphers and interests from students is increasing.
• There is now a calligraphic traditions database, general list of calligraphers and catalogue.
• As Mongolian calligraphy is revived so did artworks in soyombo script and a research book was published.
• There are more and more voluntary, community and governmental organizations supporting calligraphy exhibitions.
• By familiarizing the artists that are dispersing traditional art, the increase in the number of learners-imitators could be be viewed as ridding from the dangers of disappearance and revival of cultural heritage that contributes to society.
During the course of the report annual competitions have become consistent and desire to learn among the youth has improved.

B.3.b. Safeguarding activities

List the key activities that were carried out during this reporting period in order to achieve these expected results. Please describe the activities in detail and note their effectiveness or any problems encountered in implementing them.

The Presidential Decree No.105 of 2003 on “Celebration of Mongolian script”, Decree No.155 of 2010 on “Actions on increasing the use of Mongolian script in official settings” have been in effect. The Government of Mongolia passed Resolution No. 196 “Mongolian Script” National Program II and was implemented throughout 2008-2015. Under the “Mongolian Language Law” passed by the Parliament, Government’s Resolution No.37 of 2013 general education graduates, those enrolling universities and colleges are required to take Mongolian language written test, the results of the test serving as admissions requirement.
Also during the course of the project the following protective measures have been taken:
Teaching:
• Within the framework of implementation of the Mongolian Language Law, Presidential Decree No. 105 and 155, the National Language Policy Council in accordance with the Metropolitan Education Department have taught Mongolian calligraphy at 117 primary and secondary schools to around 16000 students.
• National Language Policy Council in cooperation with Linguistics Institute of Mongolian Academy of Science, Mongolian National University of Education, Humuun Bichig newspaper, Provincial Governor’s Office, local language policy sector councils carried out promotion of Mongolian language law, implementation of the use of Mongolian Script in cyberspaces, and Mongolian calligraphy trainings for around 2000 teachers, students, government personnel and citizens in Sukhbaatar, Dundgovi, Tuv, Arkhangai, Orkhon provinces.
• Transmission of Mongolian script and calligraphy lessons through networks such as Mongolian National Broadcast “Uv erdene” TV program, Education TV and Enlightenment TV is enlightening the public.
Promotion:
• Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Sports, Center for Cultural Heritage and Enlightenment TV jointly decorated the Naadam festival stadium with UNESCO enlisted Mongolian calligraphy, as a demonstration for both domestic and foreign tourists. By demonstrating the multifaceted nature of Mongolian calligraphy the number of those interested in calligraphy is rapidly increasing, entering everyday use and city decor.
• “Diligent writing” the annual Mongolian calligraphy competition was successfully organized in accordance with Mongolian Children’s Palace with 264 artworks submitted from 30 schools in 2013, 230 artworks from 25 schools in 2014, 250 artworks from 25 schools in 2015 and 300 artworks from 30 schools in 2016, awarding middle and high school students and from the selected works every year in late October an exhibition is held for their friends and family.
• National news agency Montsame publishes Humuun bichig newspaper in Mongolian script every week. Since 1997 the Agency has organized beautiful writing competition annually on a national level. In 2017, 700 calligraphers competed in 7 categories. Government officials present the awards. From 10 year old 4th grade student E.Temuulen of School No.60 to 90 year old calligrapher S.Jigmedsuren participated in the tournament. The purpose of the tournament is to boost the enthusiasm to learn traditional script, proclaim those who have mastered and encourage the young generation.
• 2014.05.13 “Mungun Mod” joint calligraphy exhibition by N.Bat-Erdene, B.Hishigsuren, B.Tsolmonbayar, O.Nyam-Ochir, O.Huderchuluun, N.Amartuvshin, L.Lutsukh, B.Byambatsogt, D.Erdenenchuluun was held successfully and advertised through television and media.
• 2015.12.28 Batbayar Jalair’s book “History of Mongolian Calligraphy” volumes 1,2 launched at the hall named after the Director of Mongolian National Library.
• 2015.12.28 for the world heritage digital archive “Heritage Image Archives” UNESCO and Japanese television NHK’s short series “World heritage-100” “Mongolian calligraphy” film was created and presented to the public in 2015.
• 2016.01.08 16th China Grassland culture forum was organized in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region among 50 international scholars and a lecture was delivered on the topic of “Mongolian calligraphy.”
• 2016.07.11 Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Sports in cooperation with the Center for Cultural Heritage, with the aim of acquainting Mongolian calligraphy, organized a one day public event at the Sukhbaatar square and promoted through television and various media sources.
• Under the Presidential Decree No.105 of 2003 on Celebration of Mongolian script the first Sunday in May was declared the day of National Written Culture.
• Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Sports, Department of Culture and Art an Implementing Agency of the Government, Mongolian National Library, National Language Policy Council, Mongolian Children’s Creative Center, Mongolian Writers Union, universities and cultural organizations jointly organized on May 8th.

B.3.c. Participation of communities, groups or individuals in the safeguarding activities

Describe how communities, groups or, if appropriate, individuals as well as relevant non-governmental organizations have effectively participated, including in terms of gender roles, in the safeguarding measures. Describe the role of the implementing organization or body (name, background, etc.) and the human resources that were available for implementing safeguarding activities.

The focus was on the activities and works of Batbayar Jalair and the community of his students, those developing and passing down the traditions within the extent of researchers of Mongolian script, researcher-calligraphers and enthusiasts. Artist Batbayar Jalaiir, Contemporary calligraphy association, B.Mend-Oyo, D.Battumur, T.Jamyansuren, scholar R.Otgonbaatar, D.Tserenpil, Ts.Oidov, L.Dashzeveg as well as students B.Hishigsuren, N.Bat-Erdene, O.Nyam-Ochir, B.Altantuya and enthusiasts alike are inheriting, taking actions towards the development of Mongolian calligraphy as their purpose, and are contributing their time, effort and artworks. Calligraphy artists voluntarily founded the Center of Written Culture and provide lessons there.

B.3.d. Timetable and budget

Indicate in a timetable when each activity was implemented and the funds that were used for its implementation, identifying the source of funding for each (governmental sources, in-kind community inputs, etc.).

The 2014 Cultural Heritage Protection Law passed by the Parliament, under section 41 on financing of cultural heritage can financed with fund provided, donations, aid from government budget, local budget, Mongolian and foreign citizen, international organization, legal bodies and other sources, section 13 clause 13.1.13 states “enlisting cultural heritage in the UNESCO's List and actions on protection, passing down, dispersion of cultural heritage enlisted on the UNESCO's List should be reflected in the government budget each year.” Section 15 of the Law “Rights of province, city, sum, district Representatives Council” clause 15.1.1 states “ensure law on protection of cultural heritage is being adhered to, programs and plans are being developed to implement, to allocate the necessary budget and verify”, Section 16 “Rights of Province, city Governor” clause 16.1.12 states “identify those who pass down intangible cultural heritage, introduce to the public, provide support, establish actions to ensure inheritance” thus allowing local budgets to be spent on safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage.
Based on the clauses above, during the course of the report the Government of Mongolia provided around 100 million tugriks in financing.
According to the Cultural Heritage Protection Law Section 15 provincial Governor’s offices, branch committees of local language council, within the scope of National script mid level program, from 2013-2017 have taken substantial actions to preserve and protect Mongolian calligraphy on their local territories and provided funding.

B.3.e. Overall effectiveness of the safeguarding activities

Provide an overall assessment of the effectiveness of the activities undertaken to achieve the expected results and of the efficiency of the use of funds for implementing the activities. Please indicate how the activities contributed to achieving the results and whether other activities could have contributed better to achieving the same results. Also indicate whether the same results could have been achieved with less funding, whether the human resources available were appropriate and whether communities, groups and individuals could have been better involved.

Even though ancient traditions of Mongolian calligraphy is not receiving full policy support in the current time of globalization, with the support of calligraphers, artists, non-government organizations and the youth, by learning from traditional heritage and the experience of ancient artists, dispersing domestically as well as abroad through exhibitions, promotions, sales, and shows that Mongolian culture unlike previously is being slowly restored. Since 1990 Mongolians largely received european education learning English, French, German, Japanese, Chinese languages but Mongolian written culture and calligraphy is also reaching other nations such as USA, Japan, France especially it was an incredible event that in 2015 Japanese NHK television included Mongolian calligraphy in the “World Heritage-100” series. Books, publications, television programmes, news broadcasts of culture and arts on Mongolian calligraphy have been regularly transmitted through mass media over the last 4 years.Because Mongolian calligraphy is included in the “Traditional handicraft” branch of cultural heritage it has been passed down from ancient times, and still calligraphy in books and manuscripts, carvings in gold, silver, copper, stone, bone and wood are prevalent and included in contemporary artworks and exhibitions.
Generations of elderly and young artists inheriting the heritage of Mongolian calligraphy generally have learned individually from their grandparents and parents and are teaching and instructing their own students.A characteristic of calligraphy is that the mastery of the teacher is evident in the works of their students.With the help of calligraphy not only Mongolian script but also Soyombo alphabet is being revived. All of this could be viewed as Mongolians connecting traditional calligraphy with other cultural heritages, instilling cultural and linguistic immunity in everyone, and their utmost responsibility held before their language and culture. Mongolian calligraphy is enlivening the change in history of development of traditional script into the current time and is considered a proud matter to be demonstrating vertical script in the cultural heritage of humanity.
When Mongolian calligraphy heritage was facing the danger of disappearance there was a change in society and nation’s mindset and inscribing UNESCO's Urgent Safeguarding List has been the most effective action taken for protection and is evident that the young generation, citizens began to attend to the matter with awareness. Another result of protective actions that is praiseworthy is that there are instances of foreign cultural organizations interested in inviting and researching. At this time while we understand how important it is to disperse national cultural heritage, actions are being taken during hard conditions to reach wanted developments. However, learnings and the improved changes in the awareness of the youth is encouraging us. The mid-aged and the elders have partial tendencies, because social life is affecting them they are not spending much of their time.

C. Update of the safeguarding measures

C.1.

Updated safeguarding plan

Please provide an update of the safeguarding plan included in the nomination file or in the previous report. In particular provide detailed information as follows:

  1. a. What primary objective(s) will be addressed and what concrete results will be expected?
  2. b. What are the key activities to be carried out in order to achieve these expected results? Describe the activities in detail and in their best sequence, addressing their feasibility.
  3. c. How will the State(s) Party(ies) concerned support the implementation of the updated safeguarding plan?

The Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Sports has developed the "National Comprehensive Program on Protection of Cultural Heritage 2018-2025" to further safeguard the Mongolian Calligraphy. The program aims to invest in some of the key areas of intangible cultural heritage field, to conduct researches, to organize trainings, to implement projects and to provide a sustainable livelihood. These include:
- Organize the studies on ICH and heritage bearers withal the local history, culture, traditions and conditions.
- Improve the database of registration of the Intangible Cultural Heritage and develop informational activities in accordance with modern technology and make it public.
- Conducting formal and informal apprentice trainings on the ICH
- Create a theoretical and practical training base of the ICH (bearers, cultural specialists and other relevant sectors)
- Support the bearers of the ICH and improve their social values
- Improve the legal environment to include and develop the ICH in the context of the creative industry.
- Training, re-training and specialization of the ICH's experts.
As part of this Comprehensive National Program the priority will be to further improve the economic and legal environment for the provision of incentive systems, life insurance, social security, well-being for heritage bearers.
The National Program will reflect the initiatives of non-governmental organizations, individuals, communities, groups and academics.
In the budget of the National Program, the Government of Mongolia has allocated a total of 500 million MNT. It is also necessary to obtain assistance from local, international organizations and national producers to implement projects and programs.

C.2.

Community participation

Please describe how communities, groups and individuals, as well as relevant non-governmental organizations have been involved, including in terms of gender roles, in updating the safeguarding plan, and how they will be involved in its implementation.

Cultural Heritage Protection Law, Section 34 “Rights and duties of intangible cultural heritage inheritors” has been established for the first time, 34.1.1 states “right to receive financial assistance in the need of urgent safeguarding, inheriting, restoration and passing down intangible cultural heritage,”and “intangible cultural heritage inheritor holds the duty of passing down the intangible heritage, instructing apprentices, promoting intangible cultural heritage, disperse knowledge, keep registry of intangible cultural heritage, provide support for information gathering.”
Organizations with the aim of reviving, developing and inheriting Mongolian calligraphy such as the Mongolian Calligraphy Association, Humuun bichig newspaper are carrying out activities that are significantly contributing to the society. They have previously collaborated on various operations.Ever since their founding “AC” calligraphy center has held calligraphy exhibitions since 1991 until today, conceiving independent artists and students. The center is conducting research and broadening the spectrum of artworks. Exhibitions of selected works have been shown 19 times and they regularly organize joint calligraphy exhibitions such as “Shine tsas”, “Munkh tengerin bichig.”

C.3.

Institutional context

Please report on the institutional context for the local management and safeguarding of the element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, including:

  1. a. the competent body(ies) involved in its management and/or safeguarding;
  2. b. the organization(s) of the community or group concerned with the element and its safeguarding.

a. the competent body(ies) involved in its management and/or safeguarding;
National Center for Cultural Heritage, Director G.Enkhbat
PO: 3 Sukhbaatar square, Sukhbaatar district, Ulaanbaatar 210620a, Mongolia
E-mail: cch@monheritage.mn, cch_fund@monheritage.mn
Tel: 976-11-312735,976-11-70110877
FAX: 976-11-312735
Intangible Cultural Heritage Safeguarding Department Director A.Saruul
E-mail: saku_tuntic@yahoo.com
Tel: 976-99030405
b. organization(s) of the community or group concerned with the element and its safeguarding
“AC” Calligraphy Center, Head D.Batbayar
PO: PO box 2476, Ulaanbaatar 15160, Mongolia
E-mail: batbayar@mongoliancalligrapy.com
Tel: 976-99098237

D. Participation of communities in preparing this report

Describe the measures taken to ensure the widest possible participation of the communities, groups and, where applicable, individuals concerned as well as relevant non-governmental organizations during the process of preparing this report.

Following the 2017 Order No.A/192 by the Minister of Education, Culture, Science and Sports on forming a processing committee for “Report on implementation of UNESCO Convention for Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage by the Government of Mongolia” and “Report on Intangible Cultural Heritage in need of Urgent Safeguarding”, a working committee was formed.
Ministry of Education, Culture, Science and Sports, Cultural Heritage Center, Mr. Baybayar Jalair and community of his students, researchers of Mongolian script, calligraphers, enthusiasts, Contemporary Calligraphy association, Center for Written Culture, “AC” calligraphy center as well as calligraphy artists and inheritors have contributed to preparing this report.

E. Signature on behalf of the State Party

The report should be signed by an official empowered to do so on behalf of the State, and should include his or her name, title and the date of submission.

Name

Ts.Tsogzolmaa

Title

Minister of Education, Culture, Science and Sports

Date

30-11-2017

Signature

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