Report on the status of an element inscribed on the list of intangible cultural heritage in need of urgent safeguarding
Name of State Party
This information is available online.
Date of deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession
Name of element
Eshuva, Harákmbut sung prayers of Peru’s Huachipaire people
Please indicate the period covered by this report.
Reporting period covered by this report
2011 - 2015
Please list all other elements from your country inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, together with the year of inscription; for multinational elements, please indicate the other States concerned.
Please provide an executive summary of the report that will allow general readers to understand the current status of the element, any positive or negative impacts of inscription, the implementation of safeguarding measures during the reporting period and their possible update for the following years.
Executive summary of the report
The Eshuva, Harákmbut sung prayers of the Huachipaire ethnic group are a traditional expression native to the Paucartambo province in Cusco, Peru. They consist of the singing of songs related to healing and the achievement of goals.
The Huachipaire culture has preserved over time a close relationship with its natural environment and regards the forest as the origin of life; for the Huachipaire people, the Eshuva sung prayers are a vital element of their identity because they feed on the energy of nature that is transmitted to the human beings.
In 2011, the Eshuva sung prayers were added to the list of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding. The following are among the main positive aspects of this inscription:
• It has allowed the participation of different federal agencies and levels, including the Ministry of Culture, the Regional Government, the District Municipality and Province Municipality alongside the native communities of Queros and Santa Rosa de Huacaria with the goal of safeguarding the Eshuva sung prayers as well as the entire Huachipaire culture.
• It has supported the social cohesion, self-esteem and identity of the Huachipaire people, which has generated the creation of representative organizations such as the Committee of Administration for the Safeguarding and the Wachiperi Eori Native Ethnic Association.
• It has allowed the identification of new cultural elements representative of the Huachipaire culture such as the Embachiha and Embachinoha songs.
• It has allowed the identification of safeguarding measures that seek securing the process of revitalization and intergenerational transmission of the Huachipaire culture and the Eshuva sung prayers.
Following the inscription on the list of Urgent Safeguarding, diverse actions have been developed for the safeguarding of the Eshuva sung prayers. The plan of action focused on considering these songs as an important element within the Huachipaire cultural universe and as a fundamental expression of the relationship that the communities have with their natural environment.
Seeing the Huachipaire culture as a complex system fostered actions on different elements of the culture that support the Eshuva such as the revitalization of their language, the creation of spaces of intergenerational transmission and interaction, and the dissemination and promotion of the Huachipaire culture at a local and at an international level.
The actions undertaken began with the constitution of the Committee of Administration for the Safeguarding that is comprised by residents of the two native communities, this committee has promoted the registration of cultural elements such as the Eshuva sung prayers and the Embachiha and Embachinoha songs, which are also a part of the Huachipaire oral tradition, with the intention of preserving them over time.
Additionally, the building of the “Casas de la Memoria” (House of Memory) was a major effort of the communities and the Ministry of Culture that is connected to the need for a physical space for meetings, ceremonies and promotion of the local cultural expressions.
The educational institutions that were able to involve girls and boys within the intercultural dialogue are important agents for the intergenerational transmission of the oral tradition. Along the same lines, the creation of the dictionary Huachipaire-Spanish has allowed the definition of the writing of Huachiperi words based on the actors’ agreement.
At the same time, the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco, has guided the strengthening of the community organizations on the affirmation of their culture in diverse spaces, and it has contributed to their administration, not only related to their knowledge but also to the vision of their future.
Provide the name, address and other contact information of the person responsible for correspondence concerning the report.
Title (Ms/Mr, etc.)
Ministry of Culture of Peru
Avenida Javier Prado este 2465 San Borja
511 476 9933
Other relevant information
B. Status of element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List
Refer to the nomination file or to previous reports, if any, as the basis for reporting on the current status of the element, and report only on relevant changes since the date of inscription on the List or since the previous report. Nomination files, specific timetables and earlier reports, if any, are available at https://ich.unesco.org or from the Secretariat, upon request.
The State Party shall pay special attention to the role of gender and shall endeavour to ensure the widest possible participation of the communities, groups and, where applicable, individuals concerned as well as relevant non-governmental organizations during the process of preparing this report, and is asked to describe how it has done so in point D below.
Social and cultural functions
Please explain the social and cultural functions and meanings of the element today, within and for its community, the characteristics of the bearers and practitioners, and any specific roles or categories of persons with special responsibilities towards the element, among others. Attention should be given to any relevant changes related to inscription criterion U.1 (‘the element constitutes intangible cultural heritage as defined in Article 2 of the Convention’).
Social and cultural functions
The Eshuva are sacred songs sung in Huachipaire language which fundamental purpose is the healing of diseases by invoking the spirits of plants or animals; they are also used to relieve a person who is going through difficult periods in his or her live and to achieve specific objectives .
The people who are entitled to use the Eshuva songs are known as Wamanokkaeri which means wise healer or shaman and must have vocation to cure and recognition within the community.
The Eshuva songs are a practice that identifies and defines the Huachipaire ethnic group in particular, and the Harákmbut in general. It is an Important element of the Harákmbut worldview and is related to their beliefs, thoughts and actions.
The Eshuva songs are the expression of Huachipaire religious myths in which the close relationship of people to their natural environment is appreciated. Through Eshuva the forces of nature are invoke to obtain concrete achievements such as healing. The Eshuva is part of a cure system consisting in finding the cause of illness and subsequent recovery. These songs are sung in major healing ceremonies as well as meetings and visits from other cultures to protect their energy, they are also sung in the initiation ceremony of the new singers. Regarding social ceremonies, singing Eshuva singing gives the group a feeling of invulnerability derived from the power attributed to the spirits of nature that are Invoked. Is with this help easier for the Harákmbut to face any risk or threat.
In the performance of the Eshuva songs no musical instruments are used, only the voice of the singer is performed who solely uses the Huachipaire language. This feature gives greater importance since it serve as a contingency element to threats of deterritorialization and cultural rupture.
For native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros the Eshuva songs are part of their most intimate and foundational traditions, they express their relationship with the forest and the interpretation of the spirits message for the life of the Huachipaire culture, its sacredness does not allow its mass diffusion but its particular use when situations that require healing appear.
The Eshuva is a testimony from the past and from the present of the Huachipaire and of their hope for future knowledge, as a cultural expression that gives them plausible answers to issues related to their origin and to their future.
Assessment of its viability and current risks
Please describe the current level of viability of the element, particularly the frequency and extent of its practice, the strength of traditional modes of transmission, the demographics of practitioners and audiences and its sustainability. Please also identify and describe the threats, if any, to the element's continued transmission and enactment and describe the severity and immediacy of such threats, giving particular attention to any strengthening or weakening of the element’s viability subsequent to inscription.
Assessment of its viability and current risks
The practice and use of Eshuva songs is still limited despite the efforts to encourage it. The Eshuva songs are at the risk of being lost, since the traditional process of transmission has been interrupted due to the lack of interest of the Harákmbut youth in learning them, internal migration to other parts of the country, and also due to the influence and assimilation of foreign cultural elements.
The decreasing frequency with which the Eshuva is carried out among the Huachipaire is a major factor.
Although in the past the Eshuva was an extended practice among the Huachipaire, nowadays as an ethnic referent it is only performed by very few and elderly members of the group. Currently, we have contact only with seven local wise elders (wamanokkaeri) who know and maintain in force this cultural expression, they all live in the native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Qeros, located in the district of K'osñipata, province of Paucartambo in Cusco and they are:
• Cesar Colón Huareto.
• Sergio Pacheco Ambeo.
• Pepe Solisonquehua.
• Manuela Ramos.
• Manuel Solisonquehua.
• Melchor Ramos
• Estela Dariquebe.
It should be noted that unfortunately two of the local wise elders died at the time of the registration of this element on the Urgent Safeguarding List. On the other hand, three other wise elders no longer live in the district of K'osñipata and we could not communicate with them.
The frequency of use of these songs is restricted to adults over 40 years old, however, the challenge remains to reach the youth which would consolidate the transmission process, the efforts made since the registration were the creation of intergenerational learning spaces and to promote the dissemination of the Huachipaire culture to raise the interest of new generations.
One of the most important threat for the continuity of the Eshuva Songs, and in general for the culture of the Huachipaire people, is the racial-ethnic discrimination made by groups or external agents that live in the district of K´osñipata. These agents influence teenagers from the native communities who feel ashamed to express themselves in their mother tongue; and children who have little interest in learning their Huachipaire mother tongue.
Another major threat identified is the lack of the intercultural and bilingual approach in the educational program at the educational institutions located in the communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros. The need of a system based on the revitalization of the Huachipaire language program is urgent.
Finally, another great threat concerns the little cultural relevance of the health program carried out by the local health facility in the district of K'osñipata. The working staff in this facility does not known and does not take into account local expressions related to health care praticed by the population, especially the Eshuva songs.
Implementation of safeguarding measures
Please report on the safeguarding measures described in the nomination file, and previous report, if any. Describe how they have been implemented and how they have substantially contributed to the safeguarding of the element during the reporting period, taking note of external or internal constraints such as limited resources. Include, in particular, information on the measures taken to ensure the viability of the element by enabling the community to continue to practise and transmit it. Include the following detailed information concerning the implementation of the set of safeguarding measures or safeguarding plan:
Objectives and results
Indicate what primary objective(s) were addressed and what concrete results were attained during the reporting period.
Objectives and results
Objective 1. Encourage the process of intergenerational transmission of the Huachipaire culture elements as a contribution to its permanence in time.
Achievement of the commitment from the communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros to elaborate and implement safeguard measures.
Establishment of an oral transmission space of Eshuva songs devoted to heal diseases. Alberto Manqueriapa Vitente, Santa Rosa´s de Huacaria leader, was in charged of this space.
The interest and commitment for the Huachipaire cultural manifestations and its intergenerational transmission increased in the Huachipaire communities with the participation of the wise elders.
The creation of a cultural exchange space for children which aims the affirmation of Huachipaire cultural features.
A communal physical space for meetings and for the exhibition of the main Huachipaire culture feautures.
Objective 2. Record and identify cultural manifestations with the participation of local wise elders to strengthen Huachipaire cultural identity.
The audio recording of the Eshuva, Embachiha and Embachinoha songs, and its distribution among the members of the native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros.
The publication of the Huachipaire-Castilian dictionary: "ORO HATE EMÄNDOYA" after a collaborative work between the communities and the Descentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco.
Huachipaire songs were positioned among the district and province authorities through the dissemination of the phonographic material.
Objective 3. Promote institutional actions that will contribute to the Eshuva safeguarding
The commitment of educational institutions from the native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros to promote oral transmission of Huachipaire culture was achieved. It is intended that the district authorities from K'osñipata give major interest in safeguarding the cultural manifestations of the Huachipaire culture giving priority to teachers who know the local language at the recruitment for educational institutions.
The K'osñipata District Municipality issued a Municipal Regulation against Racial and Ethnic Discrimination and this regulation also promotes the linguistic rights of the Huachipaire language. In addition, there a disposition to use the Huachipaire language in all public institutions for public attention and the signaling of public services in Huachipaire language in the native communities and in the K'osñipata district.
The consolidation of a local representative association for the safeguarding of the Huachipaire culture and the Eshuva songs.
Objective 4. Dissemination of the Huachipaire Culture
The dissemination of the Huachipaire culture was achieved in public spaces in the city of Cusco.
Through cultural gatherings in the K'osñipata District the Huachipaire culture is being recognized.
The Huachipaire culture was disseminated in the Second Book Fair 2015 held in the city of Cusco, through an exhibition of 20 photographs taken and selected by the communities.
The Huachipaire culture was disseminated in the Smithsonian Folklife Festival in Washington D.C. United States in 2015. During this festival a panel discussion about Eshuva Songs focus on its therapeutic use and cultural affirmation was held.
List the key activities that were carried out during this reporting period in order to achieve these expected results. Please describe the activities in detail and note their effectiveness or any problems encountered in implementing them.
Creation of the Committee of Administration for the Safeguarding, made up by the communities Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros. This committee along with the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco, has focused on registering the Eshuva songs and identifying their cultivators.
- Identification of the singers of Eshuva and registration of thirteen songs. These songs are archived in the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco and in the communities. The Eshuva songs are a fundamental part of the Huachipaire traditions because they represent their relationship with the forest and the interpretation of the message of the spirits for the life of the Culture. The holiness of the songs does not allow their mass distribution but instead their specific use for healing purposes.
The Committee’s provisions dictate that the recordings of the Eshuva songs performed in 2012 must be archived exclusively in the Santa Rosa of Huacaria and Queros communities and in custody of the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco. This material has as ultimate objective the transmission of the songs to new generations of young Huachipaire people. Along those lines, their distribution will be the responsibility of the Committee of Administration for the Safeguarding in coordination with the professional team of the Ministry of Culture.
The following Eshuva songs have been registered,
• Wamiekate Wamanokkae.
• Nokirëngre emanokkae.
• Ekhen vt.
• Uugate emanka.
• Ewäsösuwa. .
• Ekpugoite Eshuva.
- Building two “Casas de la Memoria” (House of Memory) in the Santa Rosa of Huacaria and Queros communities. This was the result of agreements between the Committee of Administration for the Safeguarding and members of these communities that determined creating a physical space for performing the ritual ceremonies related to the Eshuva songs and also for performing other cultural expressions. The Casas de la Memoria were finished in 2013 as a result of the collective work of both communities.
- Identification of the three different types of Huachipaire songs according to their cultural use, Eshuva, Embachiha y Embachinoha. Thanks to the participation of the Wamanokkaeri (wise elders), two additional types of Huachipaire songs have been identified: the Embachiha songs, performed before sharing masato (traditional beverage) and also as a celebration of personal achievements; and the Embachinoha songs, which narrate experiences related to nature.
- Registration of seventeen (17) Embachiha and Embachinoha songs in digital audio, which was done with the elders of the communities. A thousand (1,000) copies of this record were edited and distributed following a plan designed by the Safeguarding Committee. This compact disc has been received enthusiastically by the communities and has stimulated the interest of the local authorities that were not aware of these cultural expressions.
- Elaboration of the Dictionary Huachipaire-Spanish “ORO HATE EMÄNDOYA”. Twenty (20) Huachipaire-speakers from the Santa Rosa de Huacaria y Queros communities participated in the elaboration of this dictionary. With the advice of Linguistics specialists, this group of native Huachipaire speakers has written Huachipaire words from a variety of semantic fields and their meaning in Spanish. This is the first time that the translation of the term “Wachiperi” is used, meaning “those who flourished after the events of the end of the world”, this is part of the fundamental process of cultural affirmation of this people.
- Creation of the “Native Ethnic Association Wachiperi Eori” – ANEWE- (2014) that encompasses the Santa Rosa of Huacaria and Queros communities. This organization reflects the interests of both communities as regarded by the local authorities, and other public and private organizations. The ANAWE and the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco have promoted two meetings about the Huachipaire culture where the people shared dances and singing in a festive environment.
- The creation of a space for the affirmative cultural exchange amongst children of the three cultural groups living in the communities: Huachiperi, Matsigenka and Q´ero. This was achieved thanks to the support of educational institutions. Multiple musical expressions are shared in this space, including the Embachinoha songs that have an especial importance for the Huachipaire as they are greatly related to the Eshuva songs.
- Dissemination of the Huachipaire culture in the city of Cusco. Twenty residents of the communities Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros took pictures of places, people and scenes of their culture. These photos were exhibited in the exposition “ORONDA HÖHEÏ” (“Somos Nosotros”,“This is who we are”) part of the second Cusco International Book Fair in 2015. After the fair was ended, these pictures were returned to the residents and placed in the “Casas de la Memoria” of each community.
- Dissemination of the Huachipaire culture in the United States. The NGO, ACCA (Association for the Conservation of the Amazonic Basin), supported the participation of a group of the Huachipaire people in the Smithsonian Folklife Festival en Washington D.C. US, in 2015. A talk about the Eshuva songs was part of the festival, focused on their use for healing purposes and cultural affirmation.
- Design of the “Planes de Vida” (Life Plans) of the Huachipaire communities Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros (2015). The ANEWE has assumed the leadership of this project with the support of local NGOs (ACCA) and organizations from each community that represent native population such as the Federación de Comunidades Nativas de la Cuenca del Río Madre de Dios –FENAMAD (Federation of Native Communities of the Basin of the Madre de Dios River)
- The district municipality of K'osñipata delivered a municipal mandate against the racial and ethnic discrimination and the promotion of the linguistic rights of the Huachipaire tongue. At the same time, they mandate the use of the Huachipaire tongue in all public institutions for all interaction with the public and when implementing public services within the native communities and the K'osñipata district.
The limited budget allocated by the local governments for the registration and inventory of the immaterial Huachipaire culture is one of the main obstacles for the implementation of additional safeguarding measures.
Participation of communities, groups or individuals in the safeguarding activities
Describe how communities, groups or, if appropriate, individuals as well as relevant non-governmental organizations have effectively participated, including in terms of gender roles, in the safeguarding measures. Describe the role of the implementing organization or body (name, background, etc.) and the human resources that were available for implementing safeguarding activities.
Participation of communities, groups or individuals in the safeguarding activities
The native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros -initially a member of the Committee of Administration for the Safeguarding and later a member of the "Wachiperi Eori Native Ethnic Association" (ANEWE) - actively participate in the elaboration and implementation of the safeguarding measures of the Eshuva songs and the Huachipaire intagible cultural heritage.
The communities’ chiefs, Mr. Julián Dariquebe Gerewa, Mr. Alberto Manqueria Vitente and the Wiseman Sergio Pacheco Hambeo identified the Eshuva singers and selected the songs for recording. These three persons lead and coordinate the safeguarding process of the sacred Eshuva songs.
The Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros population have a main role and participate actively in the festivities through the presentation of songs and dances in the Huachipaire language. They have also actively participated in the workshops and cultural meetings. The population of both native communities, with their leaders, built two houses of memory (Casas de la Memoria) with funding from the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco of the Ministry of Culture. The community work was crucial for the strong development of these spaces for transmission of the Huachipaire culture and, in particular, of the Eshuva songs.
The Committee of Administration for the Safeguarding worked with the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco in the identification of the three types of Huachipaire songs: Eshuva, Embachiha and Embachinoha. The digital record and the publishing of these songs were performed considering what was proposed by the communities’ authorities. The distribution of this material was also realized in agreement with the songs’ cultivators.
Twenty Huachipaire speakers participated in the elaboration of the Huachipaire-Spanish Dictionary “ORO HATE EMÄNDOYA”. All of them were members of the Huachipaire native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros.
The Wachiperi Eori Native Ethnic Association (ANEWE) organized each safeguarding activity of the diverse Huachipaire cultural expressions, including the opportunities for cultural exchange in the schools, the collecting of photographic material for its distribution in the Cusco Book Fair, and the formulation of the communities’ “life plans” (Planes de Vida). The ANAWE, along with the NGO Association for the Conservation of the Amazonian Basin – ACCA, also organized the participation of the delegation who traveled to the Smithsonian Folklife Festival in Washington D.C, USA.
Timetable and budget
Indicate in a timetable when each activity was implemented and the funds that were used for its implementation, identifying the source of funding for each (governmental sources, in-kind community inputs, etc.).
Timetable and budget
-- 2011: Creation of the Committee of Administration for the Safeguarding made up by the communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros. This action did not use funds.
- 2011: Identification of the cultivators and recording of the Eshuva songs for the Huachipaire communities. This record was archived at the Direction of Interculturality for the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco, their subsequent distribution will be done only within the two contributing native communities because the songs are considered sacred by the Huachipaire people. No funds involved. It had the active participation of the leaders Alberto Manqueriapa Vitente and Sergio Pacheco Hambeo. The recording was performed by staff hired by the Decentralized Culture Directorade of Cusco.
- 2012: Recording and filming of the immaterial cultural manifestations of the culture Huachipaire under the responsibility of the native leader Alberto Manqueriapa Vitente. No funds involved. It had the active and unconditional participation of this Huachipaire leader from the native community of Santa Rosa de Huacaria.
- 2011 – 2013: Building of two Casas de la Memoria Huachipaire in the native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria y Queros as physical spaces for the transmission and safeguarding of the immaterial cultural heritage of the culture Huachipaire. Cost, S/.50,000.00 (Fifty thousand Nuevos soles) Funding, Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco.
- 2013: Recording of 1000 copies of the Huachipaire Embachiha and Embachinoha songs, with the participation of the wisemen of the communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros. Cost S/.10,000.00 (Ten thousand Nuevos soles). Funding, Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco.
- 2014: Creation, edition and publication of the Dictionary Huachipaire Spanish “Oro Hate Emändoya” for the safeguarding and sustainability of the Huachipaire language. Cost S/.25,000.00 (Twenty-five thousand Nuevos soles). Funding, Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco.
- 2014: “I ENCUENTRO DE LA CULTURA HUACHIPAIRE” (First Meeting on the Huachipaire Culture), event organized for the creation of the “Asociación Nativo Étnica Wachiperi Eori” – ANEWE, for the strengthening of the rights of the Huachipaire people and the exercise of the cultural citizenship. Cost S/.8,000.00 (Eight thousand Nuevos soles). Funding, Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco.
- 2015: “II ENCUENTRO DE LA CULTURA HUACHIPAIRE” (Second Meeting on the Huachipaire Culture), event realized with the participation of public institutions, for the strengthening of the rights of the Huachipaire people and the exercise of the cultural citizenship. Cost S/.8,000.00 (Eight thousand Nuevos soles). Funding, Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco.
- 2015: “I Encuentro Intercultural de niños y niñas Huachipaire, Matsigenka y Q´ero Andino” (First Intercultural Meeting of Huachipaire, Matsigenka and Q´ero Andino boys and girls), exchange of knowledge called “Riqsinakuspa Wiñarisun”, and exchange trip to Machupicchu. Cost S/.19,000.00 (Nineteen thousand Nuevos soles). Funding, Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco.
- 2015: Photo exhibit “ORONDA HÖHEÏ” (“Somos Nosotros”, “This is us”) and release of the Huachiperi Dictionary in the Second Cusco International Book Fair, where dictionary authors and photographers showed part of their cultural traditions such as the Waname dance and Embachiha songs.
- 2015: Participation of representatives of the Huachipaire people in the Smithsonian Folklife Festival in Washington D.C., US, presenting the Huachipaire culture and the Eshuva songs. Presentation carried out thanks to the NGO Asociación para la Conservación de la Cuenca Amazónica (Association for the Conversation of the Amazonian Basin) – ACCA.
In recent years the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco of Ministery of Culture, assigns the professionals hired to coordinate and safeguard the Huachipaire culture, in association with the native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros, and the “Asociación Nativo Étnica Wachiperi Eori” (Wachiperi Eori Native Ethnic Association) – ANEWE.
Overall effectiveness of the safeguarding activities
Provide an overall assessment of the effectiveness of the activities undertaken to achieve the expected results and of the efficiency of the use of funds for implementing the activities. Please indicate how the activities contributed to achieving the results and whether other activities could have contributed better to achieving the same results. Also indicate whether the same results could have been achieved with less funding, whether the human resources available were appropriate and whether communities, groups and individuals could have been better involved.
Overall effectiveness of the safeguarding activities
The safeguarding actions underway consider the Eshuva songs as a part of a complex social system that involves the whole Huachipaire culture. Along those lines, the reinforcement of the language, the creation of the spaces for transmission and dissemination, and the identification and promotion of other related manifestations have become fundamental to the safeguarding process of the songs.
The process of revitalization of the Huachipaire culture and the Eshuva songs has undergone different phases and has had a progressive efficacy. Communities were initially skeptical in regards to actions such as the identification of the local wisemen and the registration of the song, however their interest and commitment started to grow once they saw the results. With that in mind, it was vital to secure the active participation of native speakers and the bearers of the knowledge, especially the elderly (above 60 years old) who are now dedicated to the transmission of their knowledge. Incorporating the younger native community population in the process is still a challenge. The identification of the Eshuva songs and the recording of 14 of these songs are actions with a great contribution to the safeguarding process. These songs are in the archive of the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco and in the communities’ archives.
One of the most effective actions with indirect impact on the situation of the Eshuva songs is the creation of a space for transmission of the oral tradition to boys and girls in the educational institutions. This space has been very well received by boys and girls and the adults who have shared their knowledge and even though it is a medium term project, small progress are noticeable such as the exhibit of the esxression in the intercultural dialogue in 2015 with boys and girls of other culture and in the culture meetings.
Understanding the Huachipaire culture as a complex and diverse system has also fostered the publication of the Huachipaire-Spanish Dictionary. The need for this tool stems from the situation of risk the Huachipaire language faces since only 20% of the communities’ population speaks this language. This situation involves the Eshuva songs because this language is their vehicle. That is why printing and disseminating the dictionary has allowed the educators and authorities to contribute to the process of revitalization of the Huachipaire language, creating a legacy of the writing and the culture core concepts for the new generations.
On the other hand, amongst the actions that we expect will be successful are those associated with the production of audiovisuals that gather the expressions and cultural traditions which will be distributed through the educational institutions in the communities under the professional advice of the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco with the goal of emphasizing the intergenerational transmission. At the same time, sharing with the new generations the testimonials about the use and healing properties of the Eshuva songs with the objective of appreciating their cultural richness.
Finally, the Regional Directorate of Health will consider the strengthening of the staff’s capacities/knowledge of the Eshuva songs at the K'osñipata community as a resource to care for the health of the community from a perspective associated to their culture.
Please describe how communities, groups and individuals, as well as relevant non-governmental organizations have been involved, including in terms of gender roles, in updating the safeguarding plan, and how they will be involved in its implementation.
The communities are firmly committed to seek and secure an increased participation of the Huachipaire wisemen in the transmission of the immaterial cultural manifestations and the teaching of the mother tongue within the family nucleus. The awareness and verification that the culture and their language are at risk have generated among them a growing will to become involved with the safeguarding actions. The participation of the members of both native communities has been dynamic and positive in the identification of the wisemen and the registration of the songs.
The Huachipaire community organizations have been a part of the whole process by making up the Committee of Administration for the Safeguarding, especially the elderly. This committee has scheduled the initial safeguarding actions and supported the identification process of the Eshuva singers and the registration of the Eshuva songs that still exist.
The Wachiperi Eori Native Ethnic Association - ANEWE- was created because of the need for a representative organization that interacts with entities from the government both local and national. This association is in process of positioning and empowerment. One of its first actions has been to propose to the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco the declaration as Nactional Cultural Heritage of the Hingkiori petroglyphs, sacred stone that represents one of the foundational myths of the Huachipaire culture that is located in the K'osñipata district. The ANEWE takes leadership in this way and faces the challenge of protecting and recovering the songs in addition of their role in the Safeguarding Committee.
The technical support of the professional team of the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco has been permanent during the scheduled actions. In this way the Ministry of Culture has assumed its commitment to the safeguarding of the Eshuva songs.
The NGO Association for the Conservation of the Amazonian Basin – ACCA- is visible in the area, its work impacts indirectly the safeguarding of cultural expressions. ACCA's institutional interest is to research and disseminate the relationship of the Huachipaire with the forest and nature for conservation purposes.
Please report on the institutional context for the local management and safeguarding of the element inscribed on the Urgent Safeguarding List, including:
- the competent body(ies) involved in its management and/or safeguarding;
- the organization(s) of the community or group concerned with the element and its safeguarding.
The organizations involved in the safeguarding process are:
In the community side :
• The native communities of Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros, which have been working with the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco in diverse activities for the safeguarding of the “Eshuva”, Harakmbut prayer sungs prayers.
• The Committee of Administration for the Safeguarding, , made up by local Wisemen with the commitment of safeguarding the songs.
• Wachiperi Eori Native Ethnic Association (ANEWE)
At the regional level, the competent Ministry of Culture's entity for the safeguarding of the Eshuva songs is the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco through the Área Funcional de Derechos de los Pueblos Indígenas (AFDPI) for the Intercultural Directorate.
The AFDPI works with the government of the K'osñipata district and the municipality of the Paucartambo province, involving them in the revitalization of the language and the culture.
Describe the measures taken to ensure the widest possible participation of the communities, groups and, where applicable, individuals concerned as well as relevant non-governmental organizations during the process of preparation of this report.
Participation of communities in preparing this report
In order to craft this report, two workshops were done with each native community Santa Rosa de Huacaria and Queros, where the current situation of the Eshuva songs and other Huachipaire cultural expressions was analyzed. One of the conclusions from these workshops was the need for the adults’ encouraging role of the use of the Huachipaire language amongst children under five. During these meetings, we gathered testimonials of healing experiences produced by the Eshuva songs, which will be incorporated in our future work strategy, it is vital that the new generations know the benefits of the songs and oral traditions of the culture itself.
During these work sessions, we noted a growing interest and commitment with the revitalization of the Huachipaire culture, but also the feeling of "having little support" in this process. In that sense, during 2016 the Decentralized Culture Directorate of Cusco will implement a signaling system in Huachipaire language in the two native communities and the public institutions of the K'osnipata district. At the same time, the municipality of K'osñipata has been involved with the revitalization process by committing themselves to hire teachers of the Huachipaire language for the educational institutions during the school year of 2016.
Ministry of Culture of Peru
C. Signature on behalf of the state party
The report should conclude with the original signature of the official empowered to sign it on behalf of the State, together with his or her name, title and the date of submission.
Mr. Jorge Nieto Montesinos
Minister of Culture