The data structure used in this bibliography is based on BibTex standards.

Typology of bibliographic resources

A BibTeX database can contain the following types of entries:

TypeDescriptionRequired fieldsOptional fields
articleAn article from a journal or magazineauthor, title, journal, year, volumenumber, pages, month, doi, note, key
bookA book with an explicit publisherauthor/editor, title, publisher, yearvolume/number, series, address, edition, month, note, key, url
incollectionA part of a book having its own, title, booktitle, publisher, yeareditor, volume/number, series, type, chapter, pages, address, edition, month, note, key
inproceedingsAn article in a conference, title, booktitle, yeareditor, volume/number, series, pages, address, month, organization, publisher, note, key
mastersthesisA Master’s, title, school, yeartype, address, month, note, key
miscFor use when nothing else fits. noneauthor, title, howpublished, month, year, note, key
phdthesisA Ph.D. thesis. author, title, school, yeartype, address, month, note, key
proceedingsThe proceedings of a conference.title, yeareditor, volume/number, series, address, month, publisher, organization, note, key
techreportA report published by a school or other institution, usually numbered within a, title, institution, yeartype, number, address, month, note, key


A work that is printed and bound, but without a named publisher or sponsoring institution.

  • Required fields: title
  • Optional fields: author, howpublished, address, month, year, note, key

The same as inproceedings, included for Scribe compatibility.

A part of a book, usually untitled. May be a chapter (or section, etc.) and/or a range of pages.

  • Required fields: author/editor, title, chapter/pages, publisher, year
  • Optional fields: volume/number, series, type, address, edition, month, note, key

Technical documentation.

  • Required fields: title
  • Optional fields: author, organization, address, edition, month, year, note, key


A document having an author and title, but not formally published.

  • Required fields: author, title, note
  • Optional fields: month, year, key


Usually the address of the publisher or other type of institution. For major publishing houses, van Leunen recommends omitting the information entirely. For small publishers, on the other hand, you can help the reader by giving the complete address.
An annotation. It is not used by the standard bibliography styles, but may be used by others that produce an annotated bibliography.
The name(s) of the author(s), in the format described in the LATEX book.
Title of a book, part of which is being cited. See the LATEX book for how to type titles. For book entries, use the title field instead.
A chapter (or section or whatever) number.
The database key of the entry being cross referenced.
The edition of a book--for example, “Second”. This should be an ordinal, and should have the first letter capitalized, as shown here; the standard styles convert to lower case when necessary.
Name(s) of editor(s), typed as indicated in the LATEX book. If there is also an author field, then the editor field gives the editor of the book or collection in which the reference appears.
How something strange has been published. The first word should be capitalized.
The sponsoring institution of a technical report.
A journal name. Should not be abbreviated.
Used for alphabetizing, cross referencing, and creating a label when the “author” information (described in Section 4) is missing. This field should not be confused with the key that appears in the \cite command and at the beginning of the database entry.
The month in which the work was published or, for an unpublished work, in which it was written. You should use the standard three-letter abbreviation, as described in Appendix B.1.3 of the LATEX book.
Any additional information that can help the reader. The first word should be capitalized.
The number of a journal, magazine, technical report, or of a work in a series. An issue of a journal or magazine is usually identified by its volume and number; the organization that issues a technical report usually gives it a number; and sometimes books are given numbers in a named series.
The organization that sponsors a conference or that publishes a manual.
One or more page numbers or range of numbers, such as 42-111 or 7,41,73-97 or 43+ (the `+’ in this last example indicates pages following that don’t form a simple range). To make it easier to maintain Scribe-compatible databases, the standard styles convert a single dash (as in 7-33) to the double dash used in TEX to denote number ranges (as in 7-33).
The publisher’s name.
The name of the school where a thesis was written.
The name of a series or set of books. When citing an entire book, the the title field gives its title and an optional series field gives the name of a series or multi-volume set in which the book is published.
The work’s title, typed as explained in the LATEX book.
The type of a technical report--for example, “Research Note”.
The volume of a journal or multivolume book.
The year of publication or, for an unpublished work, the year it was written. Generally it should consist of four numerals, such as 1984, although the standard styles can handle any year whose last four nonpunctuation characters are numerals, such as `(about 1984)’.

Format of the citation

The citation format used in the system is Harvard.