L’imprimerie chinoise à caractères mobiles en bois

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Inscrit en 2010 (5.COM) sur la Liste du patrimoine immatériel nécessitant une sauvegarde urgente

© 2009 Culture Ministry

Une des plus vieilles techniques d’imprimerie au monde, l’imprimerie à caractères mobiles en bois est conservée dans le comté de Rui’an, dans la province du Zhejiang, où elle est utilisée dans la compilation et à l’impression de la généalogie des clans. Les hommes apprennent à tracer et à graver les caractères chinois qui sont ensuite disposés sur une plaque d’impression et imprimés. Cela exige d’abondantes connaissances historiques et une maîtrise de la grammaire du vieux chinois. Puis les femmes entreprennent les travaux de découpage du papier et de reliure jusqu’à ce que les généalogies imprimées soient terminées. Les caractères mobiles peuvent être réutilisés à maintes reprises après le démontage de la plaque d’impression. Tout au long de l’année, les artisans transportent les jeux de caractères en bois et le matériel d’imprimerie jusque dans les salles des ancêtres au sein des communautés locales. Là, ils dressent et impriment à la main la généalogie du clan. Une cérémonie marque l’achèvement de la généalogie et les imprimeurs la déposent dans une boîte mise sous clef afin d’être préservée. Les techniques de l’imprimerie à caractères mobiles en bois se transmettent par cœur et de vive voix dans les familles. Toutefois, la formation intensive exigée, le faible revenu généré, la vulgarisation des techniques d’impression numérique et l’enthousiasme amoindri à dresser les généalogies ont tous contribué à une diminution rapide du nombre d’artisans. À présent, il ne reste plus que onze personnes de plus de 50 ans qui maîtrisent l’ensemble des techniques. Si elle n’est pas sauvegardée, cette pratique traditionnelle aura bientôt disparu.

Rapport périodique

Page de couverture

État partie

Nom de l'État partie

Chine

Date du dépôt de l'instrument de ratification, d'acceptation, d'approbation ou d'adhésion

2004-12-02

Élément inscrit sur la Liste de sauvegarde urgente qui fait l'objet du présent rapport

Nom de l'élément

Wooden movable-type printing of China

Inscrit en

2010

Période considérée dans le présent rapport

January 2011 - December 2015

Autres éléments inscrits sur la Liste de sauvegarde urgente, le cas échéant

La conception et les pratiques traditionnelles de construction des ponts chinois de bois en arc (2009)
La technique des cloisons étanches des jonques chinoises (2010)
Le festival du Nouvel An des Qiang (2009)
Le Meshrep (2010)
Le Yimakan, les récits oraux des Hezhen (2011)
Les techniques textiles traditionnelles des Li : filage, teinture, tissage et broderie (2009)

Synthèse du rapport

As one of the Four Great Inventions in ancient China, movable-type printing technique was invented during the reign of Emperor Renzong of the Northern Song Dynasty (1041-1048 AD). According to the technique, Chinese characters of different materials are engraved, picked out, and arranged into typeface based on the requirement of the text to be printed for completing the printed material with a series of specific processes. The popularity of modern printing technology has seriously endangered the survival of the technique and pushed its viability into a tight corner. The inscription of the element into the list has brought about positive social impact, and the public is increasingly aware of the vital importance of safeguarding intangible cultural heritage to the preservation of cultural diversity and creativity of human beings. Especially the communities, groups, and individuals concerned renewed the understanding of the folk custom and culture related to the element in the safeguarding activities, promoted the cultural identity within the communities, and improved the awareness of the public to respect the cultural diversity and creativity of human beings. During the reporting period (2011-2015), through the in-depth cooperation between the government and the public to safeguard the element, the viability and social visibility of the element have been greatly enhanced.
(1) Through the establishment of the safeguarding mechanism, the bearers have been encouraged to take on apprentices to activate the internal vitality of the traditional modes of transmission. At present, 22 bearers commanding the whole process of the technique have been identified as representative bearers. In addition, the number of practitioners directly involved in the transmission of the technique is about 240. Compared with the situation before the inscription, the number of representative bearers and practitioners directly involved in the transmission of the technique has increased by 15 and over 130 (including 4 females) respectively.
(2) Wang Chuanqiao Wooden Movable-type Printing Handicraft Workshop has been established for the promotion and publicity of the technique. Two Teaching Bases for Wooden Movable-type Printing Transmission have been founded in Kaiyuan Vocational Secondary School and Pingyangkeng School in Rui’an, Zhejiang Province, respectively and Wooden Movable-type Printing Technique in Dongyuan of Rui’an has been included into the school textbooks on intangible cultural heritage to promote the intergenerational transmission of the element.
(3) Such non-governmental organizations as Rui’an Movable-type Printing Association have carried out training among bearers and related practitioners for study and exchange on the technique on one hand and undertaken the printing business of ancient books since 2011 on the other hand to enhance the viability of the element through market operation.
(4) The Movable-type Printing Culture Exhibition Hall has been expanded. Community Traditional Culture Transmission Base has been constructed in Dongyuan Village to attract community members to participate in safeguarding the element and improve its visibility and influence.

Personne à contacter pour la correspondance

Titre (Mme/M., etc.)

Mr

Nom de famille

Zheng

Prénom

Jianjun

Institution/fonction

Director

Adresse

Center for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Rui’an City, Zhejiang Province FL-13 Anyang Dasha, Wansong Donglu 325200 Rui’an City Zhejiang Province

Numéro de téléphone

+86-577-65877058

Numéro de fax

Adresse électronique

rasfy@sina.com

Autres informations pertinentes

B. État de l'élément inscrit sur la Liste de sauvegarde urgente

B.1. Fonctions sociales et culturelles

Movable-type printing technique is considered by relevant communities, groups, and individuals as an important culture legacy. It is not only the technique transmitted from generation to generation in the family but also the means for them to earn a living. The technique is mainly used in the compiling and printing of clan genealogies in local communities to record the development history and family kinship with movable-type printing. Therefore, as the technical support of the local history and culture, movable-type printing technique not only provides stable physical carrier and presenting mode for the continuation of culture and family transmission but also undertakes the important function to transmit culture knowledge among communities, groups, and individuals through extensive application in the editing and publishing of ancient cultural codes and records.
Craftspeople engaging in traditional printing techniques are known as the "genealogy master". They undertake the editing, printing, and binding of different clan genealogies. Because women practitioners are weaker in arm strength, they mainly work on the typesetting, printing, and binding, and so on. The essence of movable-type printing technique comes from the updating and transmission of specific cultural and artistic concepts and is a process for intergenerational transmission of a scientific and practical system of technique. Although the technique system is of relatively fixed pattern and mature production process, there is no standard work model, which provides room for different communities, groups, and individuals to give full play to their creativity. The technique is mainly transmitted from bearers to their apprentices within a family. A specific procedure for taking on apprentices is strictly followed. Individuals should be recognized by the local community to become a bearer in the system of intergenerational transmission.
At present, the communities participating in the transmission of the movable-type printing technique have expanded from Dongyuan Village of Gaolou Town and Xiqian Village of Caocun Town in Rui’an City to the adjacent Pingyang County. Such representative bearers as Wang Chaohui, Lin Chuyin, and Wang Chuanqiao are playing an indispensable role in the process of safeguarding and transmission. On one hand, they undertake the work to compile and print clan genealogies for local communities; on the other hand, they carry out regular teaching activities on movable-type printing technique in middle and primary schools to teach cultural knowledge associated with it.

B.2. Analyse de sa viabilité et risques auxquels il est actuellement exposé

—Current Level of Viability of the Element
(1) For the internal vitality of intangible cultural heritage and the continuous demand for printing clan genealogies, the intergenerational transmission of the element in relevant communities has continued to the present day There is still comparatively great demand in markets of Zhejiang, Fujian, and other places. The viability of the element inside communities still serve for the cultural function to commemorate ancestors, transmit history, and continue identity. For example, bearers of wooden movable-type printing technique in Dongyuan Village received over 120 orders in 2013. The payment for these orders is decided by the scale of the clan genealogy. The annual income of a bearer is about 50,000 to 70,000 yuan, which is slightly increased and close to the average annual salary of a local skilled worker.
(2) After the inscription, the local communities, non-governmental organizations, and governmental departments actively supported the research on clan genealogy by folk clans to expand the extent of the application of movable-type printing technique and improve the actual demand of the market for the technique. In practice, community members also voluntarily used the technique to compile and print clan genealogies to ensure the transmission and identification function of the element in community cultural system through improving the frequency of its practice.
(3) In addition to the compiling and printing of clan genealogies, the publication of more ancient books further increased the frequency of the practice of the element and improved its viability. For example, in order to safeguard the traditional culture, the local governments entrusted the Movable-type Printing Association with the collation and publication of 15 ancient books while encouraging relevant communities to maintain the cultural tradition to regularly compile and print clan genealogies. In total 26,000 books have been printed, which were sold in bookshops and given as gifts in foreign exchange, to expand the extent of the practice of movable-type printing technique.

—Current Threats to the Element
(1) Modern technology is impacting and replacing traditional craftsmanship. With the continuous development of modern computer and digital printing technology, computer printing at relatively low cost is becoming increasingly popular. Considering the cost, many clans have discarded movable-type printing technique in rewriting and compiling clan genealogies. Instead, they have adopted the technique of computer digital printing. As a result, the traditional market for the technique has been dwindled and occupied.
(2) Movable-type printing technique is of complicated process with high technological contents. The bearer should not only master certain knowledge of history and culture but also learn and practice brush handwriting of Chinese calligraphy and hand-operated engraving techniques. It usually takes an apprentice at least two years to command the whole set of movable-type printing technique. In the modern society oriented by social utilitarianism, young people are generally lack of patience and interest to it.
(3) At present, movable-type printing technique is mostly used in rural area. Although farmers pay more for it than before, the payment is still comparatively low. Therefore, some craftspeople of the technique should do some part-time jobs or even find new jobs.
(4) There are only 22 representative bearers who master the whole set of movable-type printing technique and all of them are middle-aged or elderly people above 50 years old. There could be no bearers of the technique in the future. Without further safeguarding, it is possible that the precious traditional craftsmanship will be lost.

B.3. Mise en œuvre des mesures de sauvegarde

B.3.a. Objectifs et résultats

(1) Safeguarding bearers: The safeguarding and identification mechanism of representative bearers has been established. In total 22 representative bearers of movable-type printing technique have been identified. About 240 people have directly participated in the practice, including over 50 females. The increasing number of female bearers reflects further improvement of the viability of the element. Meanwhile, Rui'an Dongyuan Movable-type Printing Company has been founded to facilitate the production practice and transmission by bearers of the technique and improve the frequency of its practice through management and selling.
(2) Increasing visibility: We have provided support for Rui'an Movable-type Printing Association, established and improved two teaching bases for the transmission of wooden movable-type printing technique, and expanded Rui'an Dongyuan Movable-type Printing Culture Exhibition hall where relevant historical objects, video materials, and images are shown and on-site demonstration of the technique are organized. The exhibition hall has been listed as the Base for Transmission of Excellent Intangible Cultural Heritage of Wenzhou City and is a traditional culture education base for local students. These efforts have effectively improved the recognition of local people of the element and the concept of intangible culture heritage.
(3) Establishing archive: general investigation on the bearing places, bearers, cultural eco-environment, ancient books, printing technology, tools and facilities has been made. Modern digital technology is adopted for recording and preserving the project elements, technical process, feature, folk taboo, tools and physical assets of movable-type printing technique. 243 G of videos, 4580 M of photos, 108 M of texts, and over 60 pieces of other physical assets and cultural and historical materials have been collected.
(4) Institutional Guarantee: Rui'an City founded the “Leading Group for Safeguarding Movable-type Printing Technique" and clarified relevant rights, obligations, and responsibilities. The Center for the Safeguarding of ICH in Rui'an City is responsible for coordinating the safeguarding activities.
(5) Legislative Protection: such laws and regulations as the Intangible Cultural Heritage Law of the People’s Republic of China, and the Regulations on Safeguarding ICH of Zhejiang Province, have been issued and implemented. Based on the actual need for safeguarding local cultural heritage, Rui'an City also made planning and detailed methods for safeguarding the element to ensure the implementation of the safeguarding work according to laws and regulations.

B.3.b. Activités de sauvegarde

—Safeguarding Bearers and Increasing the Frequency of Practice
(1) On the basis of the recommendation of communities, representative bearers have been identified. In order to improve their income and raise their enthusiasm for carrying out practice and transmission activities, governments at different levels have provided funds for bearers to support their practice and transmission activities and daily life and preferential policies for them in terms of use of venues, reduction or exemption of tax, financial loans, and administrative examination and approval.
(2) General investigation for saving the element has been organized and archives have been established with modern multimedia technology. The viability of movable-type printing technique has been fully investigated by more than 20 professional and part-time workers. Relevant archives in the form of audio, video, and image, and so on, have been established.
(3) Movable-type printing technique training sessions have been organized at the educational base for the transmission every two years to promote the practice and transmission as well as the training of new generation of craftspeople with the focus on bearers. Rui'an Dongyuan Movable-type Printing Culture Exhibition Hall and Wang Chuanqiao Wooden Movable-type Printing Handicraft Workshop have organized a diversity of transmission activities. Meanwhile, they have taken the development of Dongyuan movable-type printing culture tourism as an opportunity to develop souvenirs with elements related to wooden movable-type printing technique. In this way, the apprentices have got more chances to practice, the bearers and practitioners have increased their income, and more job vacancies have been created for the local communities.
(4) Ancient books have been reprinted in cooperation with local governments to give full play to the social service function of the element. 15 important ancient books, including The Art of War, have been reprinted since 2011, which not only provided an opportunity for the transmission practice but also further expanded the impact of the element.
—Social Publicity and Popularization
(1) Bearers have been organized to participate in activities of Rui'an Culture Heritage Day to demonstrate the whole process of movable-type printing technique on the site from June to July every year. Besides, they have also been organized to participate in the intangible cultural heritage exhibition and exchange activities in other places, such as "Grand Exhibition of the Achievements in Productivity-oriented Preservation of Intangible Cultural Heritage in China" (Beijing and Chengdu), and "Root and Soul—Grand Exhibition of Intangible Cultural Skills in China" (Taiwan), which expand the impact of the element and attract more attention from the public.
(2) Various kinds of activities to promote movable-type printing technique into communities and campuses have been organized and teaching bases for the transmission of movable-type printing technique have been established. Two popular textbooks, namely Movable-type Printing Technique in Dongyuan of Rui'an and Movable-type Printing Technique in Rui'am, have been compiled for the implementation of teaching and publicity of wooden movable-type printing technique in middle and primary schools to improve the awareness of the importance of the safeguarding efforts among young people and students. On-site demonstrations by bearers and projects for visitors to experience the technique have been added to exhibitions to promote movable-type printing technique in the society.
(3) More than 300 pieces of news have been published on such news media as People's Daily, Guangming Daily, and China Ethnic News, and 10 thematic TV documentaries have been broadcast on CCTV and other media to give extensive introduction and presentation of the element, which have achieved good social impact.
(4) The UNESCO Convention on the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage and relevant national laws and regulations have been learned and promoted on Culture Heritage Day and in other forms to improve the awareness of the importance of safeguarding intangible cultural heritage among all walks of life and attract more people to participate in the safeguarding of the element.
(5) Relevant communities have cooperated with colleges and universities such as Wenzhou University and folk literature and art associations at city and province levels to found the China Movable-type Printing Technique Expert Committee. Intellectual support has been provided for the safeguarding activities through academic research and discussion to explore the sustainable development of the element.
—Problems to be Solved
(1) Since the funds for safeguarding mainly come from government investment, diversified funds raising channels are to be explored. Apart from government investment, the contributions of communities, groups, and individuals are mainly in the form of providing physical assets and human power. At present, only a few provincial level bearers like Wang Chuanqiao have the capability to raise funds on their own for developing and selling handicrafts or promotional items related to the movable-type printing technique. In addition, diversified social resources for safeguarding the element could not be effectively utilized under the structure of single source of funds.
(2) The routine safeguarding methods fail to fully arouse the enthusiasm of bearers and reserve talents to participate in the safeguarding efforts. The existing safeguarding measures still follow the routine of exhibition, taking apprentices, and providing financial support, and so on. For the next stage of the safeguarding work, new methods should be explored. For example, museums could provide funds to collect representative works of bearers and organize thematic exhibitions to improve the income of bearers; government could make the system and measures to encourage social groups to invest in safeguarding activities; and apprentices of superb skills could be employed as professional workers.
(3) Diversified multi-level safeguarding measures should be explored to ensure the sustainable development of the element. Take the new method adopted by a few bearers like Wang Chuanqiao for example, they tried to develop movable-type printing culture tourism and related souvenirs, yet the local authorities and communities didn't pay much attention to it or provide support for it. For young bearers (most of them are apprentices of identified bearers), they could hardly be identified as bearers for their limited time in practicing the technique and age. Therefore, it is difficult to make the standard and procedure for providing financial aids for those spending their work time learning the technique to stabilize the team of reserve talents and attract more young people, especially young females, to participate in the transmission of the element. In addition, there is still no corresponding incentive mechanism to mobilize the non-governmental organizations (mainly the Clan Genealogy Compiling Committee) which actively use traditional movable-type printing technique for compiling and printing clan genealogies to participate in the safeguarding efforts.

B.3.c. Participation de communautés, de groupes ou d'individus aux activités de sauvegarde

Such representative bearers as Wang Chaohui, Lin Chuyin, Wang Chuanqiao, Wu Kuizhao, Wang Zhiren, and their family members have actively participated in the safeguarding and transmission of the element. Among them, Wang Chuanqiao has raised funds and bought equipment and materials on his own to found his Wooden Movable-type Printing Handicraft Workshop where he develops derivative handicrafts with traditional techniques.
Rui'an Wooden Movable-type Printing Technique Bearer Training Base, Kaiyuan Vocational Secondary School and Pingyangkeng School in Rui'an City have invited representative bearers including Wang Chaohui, Wang Chuanqiao, and Wang Zhiren to provide guidance for students in the transmission practice all the year round and participated in the collection and recording of basic information of the technique. The two schools have included the Movable-type Printing Technique in Dongyuan of Rui'an in the textbook of intangible culture heritage. As a key vocational senior middle school of Zhejiang Province, Kaiyuan Vocational Secondary School is the teaching base for the transmission of intangible culture heritage of Rui'an City and of Zhejiang Province.
Rui'an Movable-type Printing Association is a non-governmental organization founded voluntarily by bearers of the wooden movable-type printing technique and relevant practitioners. Currently, it has over 130 members. Gathering a large number of bearers and practitioners of the traditional technique, the association has taken many measures for the safeguarding and transmission of the element. For example, it has purchased the raw materials for the transmission of the technique to print exquisite ancient books including The Art of War and Tao Te Ching with wooden movable-type technique and organized activities to enhance the internal communication among bearers.
Wu Xiaohuai has engaged in the research on wooden movable-type printing technique for a long time. Under the financial support of the government, he spent several years to complete the monograph Books on Representative Intangible Cultural Heritage in Zhejiang Province—Wooden Movable-type Printing Technique. The work published in 2012 demonstrates the safeguarding practice and research achievements of the element with vivid pictures and detailed description.
The website of movable-type printing technique in China (www.muhuozi.com) hosted by Rui'an Movable-type Printing Association was formally put into operation on June 8, 2012. It covers 10 columns, including introduction to the association, latest news, history of the technique, feature of the technique, business scope, bearers, exhibition and impact, transmission and safeguarding, members of the association, and message board, and plays an important role for the publicity and promotion of the element.
The members of China Movable-type Printing Technique Expert Committee mainly come from the Chinese Folk Literature and Art Association. All of them are members of the local expert assessment committee for intangible cultural heritage to assist the transmission activities of bearers.
From 2011 to 2015, a total of 113,000 visitors and professionals from home and abroad have visited the Rui'an Dongyuan Movable-type Printing Culture Exhibition Hall. The development of culture tourism and souvenirs has increased the opportunities for the practice of apprentices, improved the income of bearers, and created a lot of job vacancies for the local community.

B.3.d. Calendrier et budget

—Governmental Sources
2011-2013: shooting documentaries of movable-type printing technique (250,000 RMB)
2011-2014: collecting information and images of movable-type printing technique (150,000 RMB)
2011-2015: financial aid for representative bearers (170,000 RMB)
2011-2015: making brochures for the publicity of movable-type printing technique (50,000 RMB)
2011-2015: financial aid for bearers (270,000 RMB)
June, 2011: organizing the ceremony for bearers of movable-type printing technique to take apprentices (337,000 RMB, including a lump-sum of 297,000 RMB financial aid for the bearers and their apprentices, the standard is 27,000 RMB for each pair of bearer and apprentice)
2012: compiling and publishing the Movable-type Printing Technique (100,000 RMB)
2012-2015: expanding the movable-type printing technology exhibition hall (2,650,000 RMB)
2012-2015: making outdoor advertising and registration of the website (120,000 RMB)
2013-2014: organizing relevant personnel to participate in the training courses on the safeguarding of elements inscribed on the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding held in Guangzhou (40,000 RMB)
2013-2015: purchasing equipment for the transmission of movable-type printing technique (180,000 RMB)
2014-2015: purchasing equipment for establishing archive and database (100,000 RMB)

—In-kind Community Inputs and Funds Raised in Other Ways
2011-2015: organizing transmission and safeguarding activities by Rui'an Movable-type Printing Association (120,000 RMB raised by members)
2011-2015: establishing teaching base and opening training classes for the transmission of the technique (250,000 RMB of government investment, Kaiyuan Vocational Secondary School provided the venue, and students provided tools)
2011-2015: organizing bearers to participate in a diversity of transmission and practice activities (140,000 RMB of government investment, bearers participated in the transmission and practice activities, and communities provided the venue)
2011-2015: printing ancient books like The Art of War and The Story of Lute with movable-type printing technique (1,100,000 RMB of government investment, groups and individuals provided human power and technical resources)
2012-2013: organizing publicity and education activities like Bringing ICH into Schools and Communities (150,000 RMB, schools and communities provided venues and human power, and bearers participated in the publicity and education activities)
2012-2013: compiling and publishing Movable-type Printing Technique textbook (90,000 RMB, including 50,000 RMB of government investment and 40,000 RMB paid by schools)
2012-2013: establishing Wang Chuanqiao Wooden Movable-type Printing Handicraft Workshop to implement transmission and creation activities (600,000 RMB, the bearer provided the venue and physical assets worth of 400,000 RMB)
March to October, 2013: China Movable-type Printing Culture Festival (400,000 RMB, including 300,000 RMB government financial aid and 100,000 RMB raised by social groups)
2013-2015: collecting the tools and works for the transmission of movable-type printing technique (300,000 RMB of government financial aid and in-kind inputs by the society)

B.3.e Efficacité globale des activités de sauvegarde

(1) Activities for rescuing records and digital preservation have been fully implemented and fruitful achievements have been made in filing. A large amount of text, image, audio, and video information has been collected and processed, especially authentic records of project elements, technical process, feature, folk taboo, tools and physical assets of movable-type printing technique, providing original basis for the recovery of the technique when it is necessary. The use of funds in terms of this point is comparatively effective.
(2) The channels for raising funds are diversified. Governments at all levels, relevant communities, and bearers have implemented productivity-oriented safeguarding focusing mainly on printing works with wooden movable-type printing technique. Over 100 clan genealogies or ancient books have been printed annually. Although different clans keep the tradition to revise their clan genealogies regularly for a long time, the period, range, and order of the revision by these clans differ from each other. Therefore, the channels for raising funds for these projects are diversified. A council of clan elders is found for each revision. It is responsible for managing and supervising the use of the funds to ensure high efficiency and avoid waste. In addition, the completed products of clan genealogies should undergo a strict examination and acceptance procedure by the council to guarantee the quality.
(3) More people have participated in the safeguarding activities with increasing number and improving social statues of the bearers. The transmission work mainly relies on establishing teaching base by vocational education organizations, creating the mechanism for bearers to take apprentices, and providing financial aids for representative bearers. The investment on the transmission work has increased, yet the results are not obvious. Therefore, we should further increase the investment. For example, the financial aid provided for representative bearers should be greatly increased. Meanwhile, the central role of bearers in the decision-making process should be brought into full play to ensure the mutual promotion of the overall safeguarding efforts for the element and specific safeguarding activities of bearers.
(4) The publicity, promotion, and popularization have taken root in people's mind, which improves the visibility of the element. Currently, the limited investment has gained satisfactory results, so it should be further strengthened in the safeguarding efforts. In particular, through promoting activities to bring intangible cultural heritage into communities and campuses, compiling local textbooks, publishing monographs, shooting publicity films and documentaries, and so on, we can improve the awareness of the importance of the safeguarding efforts among the public, popularize the knowledge of cultural heritage, and create good atmosphere in the society. Nevertheless, attention should be paid to the exploration of new channels and methods for publicity to improve the efficiency of use of funds in the safeguarding efforts of the next stage.
(5) The extensive participation of non-governmental industrial organizations and professional institutions has increased the efficiency in the comprehensive utilization of different resources. Institutes of higher learning and social organizations have participated in the safeguarding efforts by implementing various kinds of academic exchange and establishing the mechanism for providing scientific basis for safeguarding intangible cultural heritage. Although certain achievements have been made in the safeguarding work, we should still further sum up the experience and establish norms to ensure the targeted safeguarding and improve the efficiency in comprehensive utilization of different resources.

B.4. Participation des communautés

(1) Representative bearers, including Wang Chaohui and Lin Chuyin, have actively implemented safeguarding and transmission activities by carrying out transmission activities in educational bases regularly and participating in the collection and record of information related to the technique since 2011. They have made solemn promise to show the willingness to continue to cooperate with communities and governments in their safeguarding and transmission activities and actively participate in different activities for teaching movable-type printing technique. “We should not only rely on the attention of the government for the survival of wooden movable-type printing technique. As a bearer, I have the responsibility and obligation to take apprentices. The technique transmitted from our ancestors should not be lost in our hands", said Wang Chuanqiao.
(2) Communities and groups are the social foundation for the survival of the element as well as the beneficiaries and consumers of its humanistic value. In the past five years, the communities and groups mainly participate in the transmission and safeguarding work from two aspects: one is to reach consensus in communities on the safeguarding and transmission of clan genealogies and related traditional knowledge; the other is to provide related clues and information for bearers and researchers to help them in the general investigation. For example, Rui'an Movable-type Printing Association have purchased high quality wood materials for those engaging in movable-type printing annually to engrave the Chinese characters for the printing; they have organized annual meetings to inform participants of the development of the movable-type printing technique and reward excellent bearers and craftspeople for compiling and printing clan genealogies; and Dongyuan Movable-type Printing Company has been founded to undertake the business of printing ancient books with movable-type printing technique. Practice has shown that a favorable social environment is beneficial to the implementation of safeguarding activities by bearers and related organizations.
(3) Dongyuan village of Pingyangkeng Town in Rui'an and Rui'an Movable-type Printing Association have made solemn promise that they will spare no efforts in the safeguarding and transmission of the element.

B.5. Contexte institutionnel

a. the competent body(ies) involved in its management and/or safeguarding:
Bureau of Culture, Radio, TV, Film, Press and Publication, Rui'an City, Zhejiang Province
Center for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Rui'an City, Zhejiang Province
Center for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage of Wenzhou City (Rui'an is a county level city under the supervision of Wenzhou), Zhejiang Province

b. the organization(s) of the community or group concerned with the element and its safeguarding:
Rui'an Movable-type Printing Association, Zhejiang Province
China Movable-type Printing Culture Exhibition Hall
Wang Chuanqiao Wooden Movable-type Printing Handicraft Studio
Kaiyuan Vocational Secondary School, Rui'an City, Zhejiang Province
Pingyangkeng School, Rui'an City, Zhejiang Province
Dongyuan Movable-type Printing Company, Rui'an City, Zhejiang Province
Rui'an Dongyuan Movable-type Printing Culture Exhibition Hall, Zhejiang Province
China Movable-type Printing Technique Expert Committee

B.6. Participation des communautés a l'etablissement du présent rapport

(1) First-hand material needed for the report is collected concentrating on representative bearers. The report is completed in the full participation of bearers and fully reflected their ideas and suggestions. For example, such representative bearers as Wang Chaohui and Wang Chuanqiao have attended the symposiums organized by relevant organizations from April to May in 2014 and the field research for completing the report in December 2015. In addition, they have participated in the drafting of the report and provided specific materials and suggestions.
(2) Field research has been carried out to give full play to the primary role of the community members in the collection of materials. Relevant communities, groups, and individuals to the element, especially the villages and family members of the bearers, have provided active support for the collection of information and drafting of the report. They actively supported the work of representative bearers and researchers in 2014 and 2015 and provided precious information for the report on the status of the element.
(3) The professional advices from relevant experts have been emphasized to improve the level of participation of non-governmental organizations in the safeguarding efforts. Under the support of local governments, we have established the working group for drafting the report and organized related professionals, experts, and scholars to collect information and carry out thematic research. Relevant symposiums have been organized to discuss the contents of the report. Center for the Safeguarding of ICH of Zhejiang Province has contacted and arranged scholars and experts to attend the thematic investigation to provide professional guidance for the drafting of the report.

C. Signature au nom de l'état partie

Nom

XIE Jinying

Titre

Director General, Bureau for External Cultural Relations, Ministry of Culture, People's Republic of China

Date

27-05-2016

Signature

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