Le rite des Tsars de Kalyady (Tsars de Noël)

Inscrit en 2009 (4.COM) sur la Liste du patrimoine immatériel nécessitant une sauvegarde urgente

© 2008 by Tatiata Kukharenok/ Belarusian cinema center to the Arts History, Ethnography and Folklore Institute, National Academy of Science
Les Tsars de Kalyady (Tsars de Noël) est un événement rituel et festif célébré dans le village de Semezhava, dans la région de Minsk au Belarus. Les célébrations du Nouvel an biélorusse ont lieu traditionnellement selon l'ancien calendrier julien et s'accompagnent de manifestations artistiques locales spécifiques. Environ 500 hommes participent chaque année à l'événement ; sept d'entre eux sont choisis pour jouer les rôles des Tsars de Kalyady dans la pièce historico-religieuse nationale intitulée « Le tsar Maximilien ». Des personnages comiques supplémentaires, le ''dzad'' (vieillard) et la ''baba'' (vieille femme), interprétés respectivement par une jeune fille et un jeune homme, dialoguent avec le public. Au cours de la pièce, les tsars se rendent chez les jeunes filles non mariées du village pour jouer des comédies et recevoir bons vœux et récompenses. La procession se poursuit pendant la nuit, à la lueur des torches. L'incorporation, dans la pièce, d'allusions à des aspects de la vie moderne ainsi qu'à des communautés ethniques, des groupes et des individus, a fait de ce théâtre un exemple vivant de diversité culturelle. De nos jours, bien que très prisée des habitants les plus âgés, cette tradition perd de sa popularité auprès des jeunes générations, ce qui pourrait provoquer une rupture de la transmission des connaissances relatives à la fabrication des costumes, des instruments, des décorations intérieures et des plats spécifiques associés – tout un patrimoine immatériel qui pourrait ne pas survivre à la génération actuelle d'habitants du village.

Rapport périodique

A. Page de couverture

A.1. État partie

Bélarus

A.2. Date du dépôt de l'instrument de ratification, d'acceptation, d'approbation ou d'adhésion

03-02-2005

A.3. Élément inscrit sur la Liste de sauvegarde urgente qui fait l'objet du présent rapport

Nom de l'élément

Rite of the Kalyady Tsars (Christmas Tsars)

Inscrit en

2009

A.4. Période considérée dans le présent rapport

2012 - 12-2013

A.5. Autres éléments inscrits sur la Liste de sauvegarde urgente, le cas échéant

Le rite des Tsars de Kalyady (Tsars de Noël) (2009)

A.6. Synthèse du rapport

The Rite of the “Kalyady Tsars” is the element of the intangible cultural heritage of Belarus inscribed in 2009 on the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding. The rite is celebrated annually on January 13 (New Year’s day for Orthodox Christmas known as “Generous evening” according to the old Julian style calendar) by the villagers of Semezhava (Minsk region, Central Belarus). The ritual is a part of the traditional Belarusian Christmas and New Year’s carnival.
Inscription of the element on the Urgent Safeguarding List has stimulated a broad spectrum of the activity for its sageguarding and promotion from the local community, the Ministry of Culture, local authorities, mass media, different non-governmental organizations and representatives of the tourism sector.
Measures undertaken by local community and administration involve a wide range of activities, including the transmission of the practical knowledge through the direct family communication between older and younger villagers, as well as workshops and individual work with bearers was provided by the Institute of Culture of Belarus and Student Ethnography Association, through educational activity at Semezhava school, documentation and inventorying of local heritage conducted by local activists in collaboration with students of the Belarusian State University (2012 – 2013). As a result of this investigation the book “Traditional Cuisine of Semezhava” was published. It was written on the basis of the stories of local residents and under their direct participation. In September 2013 there was the broad presentation of this book which included the tasting of local dishes. The book gives many details of dishes which used during the rite of "Kalyady Tsars".
Since 2011 the Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava Community was created. Together with the experts from the Institute for Culture of Belarus the representatives of this Association provide annual monitoring of the ongoing viability of the element. By efforts of the association and personally Georgij Tsimanau (the most active perfomer of the rite) some local schoolkids now joint to the adult group of Tsars and created their own ritual group. During two last year they have actively participated at the holiday. Belarusain Association of Rural Tourism has been actively cooperating with the local community and helps them in a number of tourism projects.
In general, as it seems to us today the element "Kalyady Tsars" is fairly stable. It is recognized by the local community as an important part of their identity and actively practiced by them, including young villagers. The local community is actively developing other forms of their heritage, tangible and intangible, actively promotes them by attracting tourist organizations, mass media and different funds.

A.7. Personne à contacter pour la correspondance

Titre (Mme/M., etc.)

Ms

Nom de famille

STASHKEVICH

Prénom

ALLA

Institution/fonction

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT ON THE PRESERVATION OF HISTORIC AND CULTURAL HERITAGE, INSTITUTE OF CULTURE OF BELARUS

Adresse

UL. KALINOVSKOGO, 12 MINSK 220086

Numéro de téléphone

+375 29 332 03 94

Numéro de fax

+375 17 267 17 33

Adresse électronique

AS.BELICOM@GMAIL.COM

Autres informations pertinentes

B. Etat de l'élément inscrit sur la liste de sauvegarde urgente

B.1. Fonctions sociales et culturelles

Nowadays the Rite "Kalyady Tsars" actively practiced by local community. The inhabitants of Semezhava village consider the rite as their cultural value. They are proud of it and in every way promote. The rite kept its cultural and social functions and even sacral role. The ceremony concludes the period of holidays after the strict Christmas Festival (according to orthodox tradition) and signalizes the beginning of a new year. The villagers believe that it is very important to keep the all structure of the ceremony- its schedule and rules. The Tsars’ visits are believed to be a sign of prosperity for every family in the coming year.
The active bearers of tradition are the group of young men headed by Georgij Tsimanau (Tsars directly, actors). Today the group of schoolkids has jointed to them and also practice the rite. Other villagers prepare the ritual meals, costumes and every year organize the local fair at the day the holiday.
The rite kept its important role for the community, its social (as a part of collective memory and social life of villagers) and sacral (as a ceremony devoted with some local ideas about the world and community's beliefs) functions.

B.2. Analyse de sa viabilité et risques auxquels il est actuellement exposé

The Kalyady Tsars ritual obtained a new impetus to life in 1980s after 20 years of oblivion during the Soviet epoch. But the great interest to it from the side of the community and experts was launched in 1990s. Since then the rite has been annually performed as in former times.
Traditionally, the ritual has been performed only by young men. This fact is very important because it per se enhances the participation of youth in this ceremony. But it was a real risk to lost this element because many of young people left the village due the lack of economic prospects. After the including the Semezhava village into the State Programme of the Development of Small Towns and Villages of Belarus many young people began to stay at the village and are working at the local rural farm and some industrial enterprises. Semezhava's school actively promotes the village heritage among schoolkids. During two last year children group of Tsars participates at the ceremony.
Among serious threats for the viability of the rite is a lack of direct transmission of knowledge and skills in the framework of a family, from father to son, from grandfather to grandson, as before. Today, the main role of the transmitters is carried out by the most active former and today's participants of the rite. Georgij Tsimanau, the most active performer among the Tsars, is one of these transmitters. In 2010, during the ritual he played the role of Tsar Mamai. Georgij Tsimanau provides a great work aiming at increasing awareness among all members of the community. He trains the regulations for young participants of the rite.
According to interviews of the local residents to mass media, they are very proud of their heritage and underline that this ritual is unique, it exists only in their village and nowhere else. Many former residents of the village, who emigrated many years ago, try to come home during the holidays and take part in it.
But new challenges appeared. This is a lack of modern infrastructure for tourists, including the hotel, restaurants, information centre, etc. In 2012 more than 500 people, including tourists visited the village during the holiday. The Community association now elaborates the project of integrative conservation for the protection their heritage through the involvement it in modern economical processes and is engaged in the search of additional investments.

B.3. Mise en œuvre des mesures de sauvegarde

B.3a. Objectifs et résultats

Following on from the inscription of the Kalyady Tsars rite on the Historical and Cultural Heritage List of the Republic of Belarus, the local community and authorities have proposed a series of measures to help safeguard the element. The measures are intended to increase awareness among the members of the community of the rite's status as a part of local intangible cultural heritage and provide the sustained development of the element. The measures also include the introduction of an annual award for the protection of traditions of Semezhava, which is aimed at expanding the circle of participants and involve as many young people in the activities for preservation and revival of local culture as possible. Several measures concern the dissemination of information about the rite - via the production of a series of programmes on the Kalyady Tsars by the national mass media, the publication of special print and electronic material to help ensure its popularity and continuity.
All these measures were realised during some years.
Nowadays rite "Kalyady Tsars"gained wide popularity, thankful to the activity of mass media, efforts of the Ministry of Culture, local community. Last year more than 500 persons: tourists, journalists, and students visited the village during the feast. Usually at that day the residents organize a big fair on which products of local artisans are sell. Everybody can taste the dishes of traditional cuisine. Many experts argue that the meal in Semezhava has original and diverse nature.
Today the development of the element is quite stable. It is supported and practiced by locals, including the youth. The village was included into a number of State investment programmes and gradually is strengthened economically. Many young people now stay to work at the village. In Semezhava there are a big school and a number of cultural institutions: a museum, house of crafts, cultural centre. But there are a lack of restourants, a hotel and other modern infrastructure.
A series of seminars was held with the representatives of local community, actors and craftsmen. The topics of the seminars were different, including cultural and economical development, the safeguarding measures, the role of community in the safeguarding of ICH and others. Organisers of these seminars were Institute of Culture of Belarus, Association of Rural Tourism, Student Ethnography Association.

B.3b. Activités de sauvegarde

The inscription of the “Kalyady Tsars” rite in November 2009 on the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding gave a new creative urge to its development and promotion.
All safeguarding measures for the element are decided upon jointly by the bearers, experts and state institutions, to protect and provide the continuous practice of the rite. The activity on the element safeguarding is realised on different levels:
1) Ministry of Culture of Belarus provides the support of the rite :Kalyady Tsars" by means of its including like one of priorities into the State Programme for the Development of the Belarusian Culture for 2010 - 2015. The programme provides the organization of the annual folklore festival and fair in Semezhava village, financial support of bearers of the rite, adoption of the school programme for studying of the local culture and handicrafts, the development of the local House of Crafts as a centre of local traditional culture.
2) The Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava Community together with the experts from the Institute for Culture of Belarus has provided two seminars on safeguarding measures and the inventorying of local heritage (2012-2013).
Thankful to the private financial support the material on the local food traditions were collected and published in the book "Traditional Cuisine of Semezhava". The presentation of the book and the fest of traditional meal was on September 2013.
4) Student Ethnography Association, Institute of Culture of Belarus organised a serie of expeditions to the neighboring villages aimed to know about analogical rituals.
Despite the fact that such rites were recorded before in neighboring with Semezhava places, but the living tradition exists only in Semezhava. But the big interesting data has been collected during the expeditions, allowing better to learn about the history of the rite Kalyady Tsars. The results of investigations were published on the website of the National Inventory of the Belarusian ICH -- http://www.livingheritage.by/events/2150/.
5) Since 2011 local children participate at the rite as a separate group of Tsars -- small Tsars, providing natural transmission of the element.
The rite «Кalyady Tsars» will take place again in the Semezhava village on January 13, 2014. Together with local residents, hundreds of tourists and journalists will participate to the traditional ceremony.

B.3c. Participation de communautés, de groupes ou d'individus aux activités de sauvegarde

Many actions on safeguarding of the element have been initiated by the inhabitants of Semezhava village themselves. They were very glad and proud when learnt from the news about the inscription of the "Kalyady Tsars" on the a UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in need of Urgent Safeguarding. Every year during the ceremony the local community organises the meeting of many guests, provides their accomodation and meal. They also actively participate in the promotion of their own heritage, conducting of its researching. Thankful to the initiative of the residents the book "Traditional Cousine of Semezhava" was published and broadly presented.

B.3d. Calendrier et budget

Promotion of the element, raising of its visibility and viability:
2012-2013 - constant work with mass media; creation of TV and radio programmes devoted to the rite;
January 2013 - the organization of the fair of local crafts (financial support from Agro-tourism association and AgroBank of Belarus (about 12 000 USD);
Measures on providing the viability of the element:
Since 2010 - the safeguarding of the Kalyady Tsars is one of the main priorities of the State Programme for Development of the Belarusian Culture for 2010 - 2015. The programme provides the organization of the annual folklore festival and fair in Semezhava village, financial support of the bearers of the rite, adoption of the school programme for studying of the local culture and handicrafts, the development of the local House of Handicrafts as a centre of local traditional culture: 2012 -- the creation of costumes for new group of "Kalyady Tsar" (schoolkids (12-14 years old) -- 6 000 USD); 2013 -- organization of the festival of local meals);
2013 -- publication of the book "Traditional Cuisine of Semezhava" (10 000 USD, private money).
2012 -- 2013 -- researching of archives and expedition work (Institute of Culture of Belarus and Student Ethnography Association).

B.3e. Efficacité globale des activités de sauvegarde

The activity described above for promoting and providing of the viability of the element was quite effective. The element became well-known not only among the local community, but also at the national and international level. It has greatly enhanced the self- identification of local people and awoken the interest to local traditions among the young people.
The including of Semezhava village in the State Programme of the Development of Small Towns and Villages of Belarus has a great impact on the development. It enhanceв the social and cultural development of the village and the position of the young residents.
The safeguarding of the Kalyady Tsars is one of the main priorities of the State Programme for Developing of the Belarusian Culture for 2010 - 2015. The programme provides the organization of the annual folklore festival and fair in Semezhava village, financial support for the bearers of the rite, adoption of the school program for studying of the local culture and handicrafts, the development of the local House of Handicrafts as a centre of local traditional culture.
The core objective of the safeguarding activities is direct for locals themselves. This activity has awoked their identity and now they really are proud of their heritage and try to develop not only this element, but other heritage. Now locals became reseach and protect other elements of their heritage: crafts, meals, so on.

B.4. Participation des communautés

Local inhabitants identify the ceremony "Kalyady Tsars" as their own heritage and are greatly proud of their culture and traditions. They carefully protect it and try to keep to all established rules of its carrying out underlying its sacral value. Bearers of the rite participate in the creation of costumes. They provide the work with local schoolchildren and organised the another group of the "Christmas Tsars", which consists of schoolboys of 12-14 years old. The second year they perform the the ritual together with the group of adult carriers of element.
Locals meet many holiday guests, provide housing and invite them to share a celebratory dinner.
At that day the traditional handicrafts fair is organised by residents. Also they organise the tasting of local dishes.
Great help (especially financial) residents have from local and regional authorities.

B.5. Contexte institutionnel

Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Belarus manages the process for safeguarding of the rite ’Kalyady Tsars' and finances a part of measures for safeguarding of it in the framework of the State Programme for Development of the Belarusian Culture for 2010 - 2015.
Local authority, in particular, Kopyl District Department for Culture renders great assistance to the local community of Semezhava in the promotion of the element, dissemination of the information about it, using different sources, including mass media. They are actively engaged in fund raising.
Institute of Culture of Belarus together with the Academy of Sciences provides the studying of the element, organizes workshops for the bearers and local people on the safeguarding of the element.
The local community represented by the group of today's bearers and informers, including the oldest bearers of the rite (Ivan Markevich and Mikalai Skamarocha are among them) takes an active part in the promotion and preservation of the element.
Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava community was established in 2010. Their work is aimed at the organization of the folklore festival and a series of studies on the history of the ritual and the monitoring of its viability.
The Youth ethnographic club is acting under the local House of Handicraft of Semezhava. They are studying the local culture, traditions, handicrafts. Some of them are among the participants of the rite "Kalyady Tsars". Basically they are pupils of the local school and students -- the children of the local people.
Student Ethnography Association together with the Institute of Culture of Belarus organised and carried out the expedition to Semezhava and around, began to research the archives to know more information about the element and the history of the village.

B.6. Participation des communautés a l'etablissement du présent rapport

The representatives of the local community and bearers of the rite "Kalyady Tsars" took an active part in the process of preparation of this report. They provided all necessary documents: photos, information about the measures for safeguard, video-record etc. The most active were Georgij Tsimanau (tsar Mamai and the man, who was an initiator of the rebirth of the ritual);
Great help in the preparing of the report was provided by the Kopyl District Department for Culture. They provided a communication with the local community and closely cooperate with the bearers of the rite.

C. Signature au nom de l'état partie

Nom

Natalia Tsarkova and Alla Stashkevich (expert, State Institute for Culture of Belarus)

Titre

Head of the Kopyl District Department For Culture

Date

13-12-2013

Signature

OK

A. Page de couverture

A.1. État partie

Bélarus

A.2. Date du dépôt de l'instrument de ratification, d'acceptation, d'approbation ou d'adhésion

03-02-2005

A.3. Élément inscrit sur la Liste de sauvegarde urgente qui fait l'objet du présent rapport

Nom de l'élément

Rite of the Kalyady Tsars (Christmas Tsars)

Inscrit en

2009

A.4. Période considérée dans le présent rapport

November 2009 -

A.5. Autres éléments inscrits sur la Liste de sauvegarde urgente, le cas échéant

Le rite des Tsars de Kalyady (Tsars de Noël) (2009)

A.6. Synthèse du rapport

The Rite of the “Kalyady Tsars” is an element of the intangible cultural heritage of Belarus inscribed in 2009 on the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding. The rite is celebrated annually on January 13 (New Year’s day for Orthodox Christmas known as “Generous evening” according to the old Julian style calendar) by the villagers of Semezhava (Minsk region, Central Belarus). The ritual is a part of the traditional Belarusian Christmas and New Year’s carnival. The ritual New Year procession involves local people and is led by seven young men in the ritual costumes known as the Kalyady Tsars. The procession proceeds through the village, enacting the traditional play, and receiving gifts and good wishes from the local residents. The Tsars’ visit is the village’s traditional event and is believed to be a good omen and a sign of prosperity.
The inscription of the ritual on the UNESCO Urgent Safeguarding List has enhanced an imaginary interest of mass media and numerous experts to this ceremony. On January 13, 2010, Semezhava village was visited by a large number of journalists, simple visitors and foreigners who wanted to feel the ancient magic of the Generous evening. Local people had never seen so many visitors before. Such attention from press and other people has increased the activity and interest of the local community to its heritage. Real interest appeared among the younger generation of Semezhava residents. Now the ritual received a new impetus to life. With the view to attract investment in the economic and social development of Semezhava, in 2010, the village was included into the Belarusian State Program of the Development of Small Towns and Villages. In 2011, the ritual “Kalyady Tsars” was put forward for an Award of the President of the Republic of Belarus by the Ministry of Culture. On January 8, 2011, an awarding ceremony took place. Besides, some safeguarding measures were provided by the State Programme on Developing of the Belarusian Culture for 2010 - 2015, including the organization of an annual festival of traditional culture and fair in Semezhava village, adoption of school programmes on preservation of cultural heritage, edition of some publications concerning the rite, etc.

A.7. Personne à contacter pour la correspondance

Titre (Mme/M., etc.)

Nom de famille

Prénom

Institution/fonction

Adresse

Numéro de téléphone

Numéro de fax

Adresse électronique

Autres informations pertinentes

B. Etat de l'élément inscrit sur la liste de sauvegarde urgente

B.1. Fonctions sociales et culturelles

The Rite of the Kalyady Tsars (Christmas Tsars) is an element of the intangible cultural heritage of Belarus inscribed in 2009 on the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding. The rite is annually celebrated on January 13 (New Year’s Day for Orthodox Christmas known as “Generous evening” according to the old Julian calendar) by the villagers of Semezhava (Minsk region, Central Belarus). The ritual is a part of the traditional Belarusian Christmas and New Year’s carnival. The ritual New Year procession includes local people and is led by seven young men “Kalyady Tsars” in the ritual costumes. The procession proceeds through the village, enacting the traditional play, and receiving gifts and good wishes from the residents. The Tsars’ visit is the village’s traditional event, which is believed to be a good omen and a sign of prosperity in the coming year.
The procession continues into the night. The tsars light torches (a symbol of the fertile fire). The space is shined mysteriously and solemnly at the same time. The holiday is usually ended with the traditional dinner with plentiful meal from local cuisine dishes.
The local people are waiting for the Tsars' coming and very happy to see them. It is a part of the village culture. They actively prepare for the Tsars' coming and discuss all the details of the holiday in advance.
It is interesting (as we can see in the process of two year monitoring the rite) that the local children always follow the Tsars. After the performance is over, children also express best wishes to the owners of the house and receive awards (usually candy).
Today, as before, the ceremony “Kalyady Tsars” is sacred for many residents of the village. The ceremony concludes the period of holidays after the strict Christmas Fast (according to orthodox tradition) and signalizes the beginning of a new year. The villagers believe that it is very important to keep to all elements of the ceremony- its schedule and rules. Today some generations of the performers of the rite live in Semezhava. They closely watch for the proper execution of the ceremony and even criticize today's participants. It is possible to hear from former bearers that when they were young, the ritual used to be executed with bigger religious and emotional fervor. Besides, old villagers remember that in 1960th, there were 5 or 6 groups of “Tsars” in the village, who could visit almost all families during the festive night. The Tsars’ visits are believed to be a sign of prosperity for every family in the coming year.

B.2. Analyse de sa viabilité et risques auxquels il est actuellement exposé

The Kalyady Tsars ritual obtained a new impetus to life in 1980s after 20 years of oblivion during the Soviet epoch. But the great interest to it from the side of the community and experts was launched in 1990s. Since then the rite has been annually performed as in former times.
Traditionally, the ritual has been performed only by young men. This fact is very important because it per se enhances the participation of youth in this ceremony. But the problem is that due to the lack of economic prospects the most part of the youth is emigrating from the village. This threat may result in a gap in transmission of the element.
The majority of the participants of the ritual now are senior schoolboys and students who come home for Christmas vacation. The local youth supports all the efforts aiming at safeguarding of the rite, but the majority is interested only in its formal side without getting deeply into the sacral essence of the ritual.
Among serious threats for the viability of the rite is the loss of direct transmission of knowledge and skills in the framework of a family, from father to son, from grandfather to grandson, as before. Today, the role of the transmitters is carried out by the most active former and today's participants of the rite. Georgij Tsimanau, the most active performer among the Tsars, is one of these transmitters. In 2010, during the ritual he played the role of Tsar Mamai. Georgij Tsimanau provides a great work aiming at increasing awareness among all members of the community. He trains the regulations for young participants of the rite.
Following on from the inscription of the Kalyady Tsars rite on the UNESCO Urgent Safeguarding list, many local people started showing a keen interest in the organization of the holiday. Some of them helped to make new costumes (the costumes were made in the local Crafts Centre) for the Tsars, others helped to accommodate numerous guests who came to visit Semezhava at the time of the holiday. According to interviews of the local residents to mass media, they are very proud of their heritage and underline that this ritual is unique, it exists only in their village and nowhere else. Many former residents of the village, who emigrated many years ago, try to come home during the holidays and take part in it.

B.3. Mise en œuvre des mesures de sauvegarde

B.3a. Objectifs et résultats

Following on from the inscription of the Kalyady Tsars rite on the Historical and Cultural Heritage List of the Republic of Belarus, the local community and authorities have proposed a series of measures to help safeguard the element. The measures are intended to increase awareness among the members of the community of the rite's status as a part of local intangible cultural heritage and provide the sustained development of the element. The measures also include the introduction of an annual award for the protection of traditions of Semezhava, which is aimed at expanding the circle of participants and involve as many young people in the activities for preservation and revival of local culture as possible. Several measures concern the dissemination of information about the rite - via the production of a series of programmes on the Kalyady Tsars by the national mass media, the publication of special print and electronic material to help ensure its popularity and continuity, and the creation of appropriate Internet resource.
With the aim to involve new villagers in the participation of the ceremony the problem of safeguarding of the element with the representative of the local community, bearers of the rite, local authorities and experts was discussed. The community took on the tasks of creating new costumes for the Tsars in the local Crafts Centre and compiles a recipe-book of traditional dishes that are usually prepared by the villagers during the Kalyady festival.
The detailed study of the rite history in order to restore the lost elements, learn its relations with the existing cultural landscape and the history of the village was conducted. As the result, the work was done by the experts of the Institute of Art, Ethnography and Folklore of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus.
On the educational front, the Belarusian State University of Culture and Arts planned to introduce a special workshop for the natives of Semezhava. The aim is to develop cultural tourism, to spread information and knowledge about the ritual, thereby helping to embed it within modern forms of culture. In 2011, in collaboration with the Agro-tourism Association of Belarus, the representatives of Semezhava community and cultural institutions of Kopyl district, the workshop was held. The workshop was very productive, because it laid the foundation for long-term cooperation between tourist companies and the local community. Similar workshops are to be held annually on the eve of January 13. In 2012, with the involvement of national and foreign experts the workshop will be held in Kopyl. Meanwhile, the bearers of the "Kalyady Tsars" are to participate in the ceremony in special master class, folklore schools and different meeting and festivals of national and international level. During reporting period it was really realized.
Understanding that in a while village of Semezhava could turn into a fishbowl of a numerous of tourists it was planned to host ( and it was established in a result) a folklore festival on the basis of local tradition where the "Kalyady Tsars" ritual will form the centerpiece.
Finally, a system of annual monitoring to observe the ongoing viability of the element was created as planned.

B.3b. Activités de sauvegarde

The inscription of the “Kalyady Tsars” rite in November 2009 on the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding gave a new creative urge to its development and promotion. Many representatives of mass media, including foreigners, visited Semezhava on January 13, 2010 when the ritual was an active. Norito Kunisue, an editor of the well known Japanese newspaper “Asahi Shainbun”, was among foreign journalists. He was extremely impressed by the ceremony and the atmosphere which reigned around. He said that he even had not expected to see such expressive and interesting ritual that remained in its traditional form.
National TV and radio produced a series of programmes on the rite at that period. On September 2010, within the framework of the European Heritage Days, the exhibition of the intangible cultural heritage of Belarus was held at the National Library of Belarus. "Kalyady Tsars" took an active part at the opening ceremony.
Since 2010, the Semezhava village has been included in the State Program of the Development of Small Towns and Villages of Belarus. The programme enables to attract additional investment to the economy of Semezhava, which contributes to its social and cultural development. The programme provides the creation of new job places and the construction of new houses for young families of the village of Semezhava, which will enhance the desire of youth to remain in the village. So, at last there are the real preconditions for the development of this village and for the viability of its heritage and culture.
Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Belarus has put forward the Rite of the Kalyady Tsars for an Award of the President of the Republic of Belarus in 2011. The awarding ceremony took place on January 8, 2011.
Since 2010, the bearers of the ritual have been constantly invited to various festivals and folklore events in Belarus. During the Belarusian Folk Festival "Beraginya" the bearers of the Kalyady Tsars were presented with a UNESCO Certificate by the Chairman of the National Commission of the Republic of Belarus for UNESCO.
The safeguarding of the "Kalyady Tsars" rite is one of the main priorities of the State Programme for the Development of the Belarusian Culture for 2010 - 2015. The programme provides the organization of the annual folklore festival and fair in Semezhava village, financial support of bearers of the rite, adoption of the school programme for studying of the local culture and handicrafts, the development of the local House of Handicrafts as a centre of local traditional culture.
The rite «Кalyady Tsars» took place again in the Semezhava village on January 13, 2011. Together with local residents, hundreds of tourists and journalists took part in the traditional ceremony. On that day, morning bearers, some members of Semezhava community together with municipalities and experts from the Belarusian Institute for Culture organized and held the workshop devoted to the development of cultural tourism in Kopyl area, including the village of Semezhava. Agro-tourism Association of Belarus was invited to participate in the seminar and in the Kalyady procession.
The workshop was very productive, because it laid the foundation for long-term cooperation between tourist companies and the local community. Beginning with 2012, such workshops are to be held on a regular basis.
In 2011, Semezhava community in cooperation with the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Belarus, Kopyl Department of Culture and municipalities established the annual folklore festival in Semezhava and fair of handicrafts. The ritual "Kalyady Tsars" was in the centre of action. In 2010, Semezhava bearers of the rite and local handicrafts united in the Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava community. Their work was aimed at the organization of the festival. To provide the study of the history of Semezhava village and the rite "Kalyady Tsars" the experts from the Academy of Science and the Institute For Culture of Belarus were invited. In 2011, the study was undertaken and the results were discussed at the workshop in Kopyl.
The studies helped to restore some of the lost elements of the ritual, the history of its origin and its relationship with the cultural landscape of Semezhava. For example, the experts managed to determine how the original architecture of Semezhava (so called "pagonnyya dvary" - buildings closed in linear yards) and large space contributed to the creation in the village of the original People's Theatre (Kalyady Tsars).
As a result, by the Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava Community together with the experts from the Institute for Culture of Belarus, a system of annual monitoring to observe the ongoing viability of the element was created.

B.3c. Participation de communautés, de groupes ou d'individus aux activités de sauvegarde

Many actions on safeguarding of the element have been initiated by the inhabitants of Semezhava village themselves. They were very glad and proud when learnt from the news about the inscription of the "Kalyady Tsars" on the a UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in need of Urgent Safeguarding. During the execution of the ceremony of 2010 and 2011 they met journalists and guests with great hospitality. Now local community are actively searching for investors to support their local cultural traditions and handicrafts and their inclusion in the orbit of cultural tourism.
In 2011 in the morning of the day of the ritual bearers, some members of Semezhava community together with municipalities and experts from Institute for Culture of Belarus organized and held the workshop devoted to the development of cultural tourism in Kopyl area, including village of Semezhava. Agro-tourism Association of Belarus was invited to participate at the seminar and in the Kalyady procession. The workshop was very productive, because it laid the foundation for long-term cooperation between tourist companies and the local community. Beginning with 2012 such workshops are to be held on a regular basis.
In 2011 Semezhava community in cooperation with the Ministry of Culture of Belarus, Kopyl Department of Culture and minicipalities established the annyal folklore festival in Semezhava and fair of handicrafts. The ritual "Kalyady Tsars" was in the centre of action. In 2010 Semezhava bearers of the rite and local handicrafts united in the Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava community. They headed their work on the organization of the festival and invited the experts from the Academy of Science and the Institute For Culture of Belarus to provide the study of the history of the village of Semezhava and the rite "Kalyady Tsars". In 2011, the study was undertaken and the results were discussed at the workshop in Kopyl.
The studies helped to restore some of the lost elements of the ritual, the history of its origin and its relationship with the cultural landscape of Semezhava and the ritual. For example, experts determined how the original architecture of Semezhava (so called "pagonnyya dvary" - buildings closed in linear yards) and large space contributed to the creation in the village of the original People's Theatre (Kalyady Tsars).
Finally, by the Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava Community and the experts from the Institute of Culture of Belarus a system of annyal monitoring to observe the ongoing viability of the element was created.

B.3d. Calendrier et budget

Promotion of the element, raising of its visibility and viability:
2009-2010 - constant work with mass media; creation of TV and radio programmes devoted to the rite;
January 2011 - the organization of a workshop on the safeguarding of the ICH with the bearers of the rite and experts from different culture institutions (financial support from Minsk Regional Administration (about 2 000 USD)) and Agro-tourism association and AgroBank of Belarus (about 10 000 USD);
January 2011 - establishing of the folklore festival (about 5 000 USD);
January 8, 2011 – receiving the Award of the President of the Republic of Belarus (bearers of the rite have received 14 mln Br (about 7000 USD));
September 2010 - participation of "Kalyady Tsars" at the exhibition of the ICH in the National Library of the Republic of Belarus (support by the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Belarus (30 mln Br (about 15 000 USD));
Measures on providing the viability of the element:
February 2010 - the Semezhava village has been included in the State Program of the Development of Small Towns and Villages of Belarus. This will enable to attract additional investment in the economy of Semezhava and will enhance its social and cultural development for the special state investments.
March 2010 - the safeguarding of the Kalyady Tsars is one of the main priorities of the State Programme for Development of the Belarusian Culture for 2010 - 2015. The programme provides the organization of the annual folklore festival and fair in Semezhava village, financial support of the bearers of the rite, adoption of the school programme for studying of the local culture and handicrafts, the development of the local House of Handicrafts as a centre of local traditional culture.

B.3e. Efficacité globale des activités de sauvegarde

The activity described above for promoting and providing of the viability of the element was quite effective. The element became well-known not only among the local community, but also at the national and international level. It has greatly enhanced the self- identification of the local people and awoken the interest to the local traditions among the young people.
The including of Semezhava village in the State Programme of the Development of Small Towns and Villages of Belarus is expected to have great impact on the development. It should enhance the social and cultural development of the village and the position of the young residents.
The safeguarding of the Kalyady Tsars is one of the main priorities of the State Programme for Developing of the Belarusian Culture for 2010 - 2015. The programme provides the organization of the annual folklore festival and fair in Semezhava village, financial support for the bearers of the rite, adoption of the school program for studying of the local culture and handicrafts, the development of the local House of Handicrafts as a centre of local traditional culture.
The Presidential Award to the bearers of the rite will help raise its visibility and force mostly its status.

B.4. Participation des communautés

Local inhabitants identify the ceremony "Kalyady Tsars" as their own heritage and are greatly proud of their culture and traditions. They carefully protect it and try to keep to all established rules of its carrying out underlying its sacral value.
When some TV persons asked local people to spend the ceremony "Kalyady Tsars" in November so that they could record the programme in advance, local people forbade them to do that and refused to participate, having explained, that it was a big sin and they were not going to infringe the rules. Such behavior provides the respect to traditions and is highly estimated by youth, because it underlines the viability of the rite and its value. This situation was actively discussed in mass-media and by the experts and bearers during the workshop of 2011. Further, the great work for the explanation of this incident was done by the experts and local and district departments of culture. We hope this situation will not repeat in the future.

B.5. Contexte institutionnel

Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Belarus manages the process for safeguarding of the rite ’Kalyady Tsars’ planned to finance a part of measures for safeguarding of it in the framework of the State Programme for Development of the Belarusian Culture for 2010 - 2015.
Local authority, in particular, Kopyl District Department for Culture render great assistance to the local community of Semezhava in the promotion of the element, dissemination of the information about it, using different sources, including mass media. They are actively engaged in fund raising. They helped the bearers to make new costumes, gave travel grants for their participation in the opening of an exhibition at the National Library of Belarus and at the different folklore festivals.
State Institute for Culture of Belarus together with the Academy of Sciences provides the studying of the element, organizes workshops for the bearers and local people on the safeguarding of the element.
The local community represented by the group of today's bearers and informers, including the oldest bearers of the rite (Ivan Markevich and Mikalai Skamarocha are among them) takes an active part in the promotion and preservation of the element.
Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava community was established in 2010. Their work is aimed at the organization of the folklore festival and a series of studies on the history of the ritual and the monitoring of its viability.
The Youth ethnographic club is acting under the local House of Handicraft of Semezhava. They are studying the local culture, traditions, handicrafts. Some of them are among the participants of the rite "Kalyady Tsars". Basically they are pupils of the local school and students -- the children of the local people.

B.6. Participation des communautés a l'etablissement du présent rapport

The representatives of the local community and bearers of the rite "Kalyady Tsars" took an active part in the process of preparation of this report. They provided all necessary documents: photos, information about the measures for safeguard, video-record etc. The most active were Georgij Tsimanau (tsar Mamai and the man, who was an initiator of the rebirth of the ritual); Mikalai Skamarocha, Ivan Markevich -- the main informers. They are the oldest men of the village and participated in the Christmas procession of the tsars in early 20th century, before World War II.
Great help in the preparing of the report was provided by the Kopyl District Department for Culture. They provide a communication with the local community and closely cooperate with the bearers of the rite.

C. Signature au nom de l'état partie

Nom

Prepared by Natalia Tsarkova, Head of the Kopyl District Department For Culture and Alla Stashkevich, expert, State Institute for Culture of Belarus

Titre

Head of the Kopyl District Department For Culture.

Date

28-08-2011

Signature

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