Le rite des Tsars de Kalyady (Tsars de Noël)

    

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Inscrit en 2009 (4.COM) sur la Liste du patrimoine immatériel nécessitant une sauvegarde urgente

© 2008 by Tatiata Kukharenok/ Belarusian cinema center to the Arts History, Ethnography and Folklore Institute, National Academy of Science

Les Tsars de Kalyady (Tsars de Noël) est un événement rituel et festif célébré dans le village de Semezhava, dans la région de Minsk au Belarus. Les célébrations du Nouvel an biélorusse ont lieu traditionnellement selon l’ancien calendrier julien et s’accompagnent de manifestations artistiques locales spécifiques. Environ 500 hommes participent chaque année à l’événement ; sept d’entre eux sont choisis pour jouer les rôles des Tsars de Kalyady dans la pièce historico-religieuse nationale intitulée « Le tsar Maximilien ». Des personnages comiques supplémentaires, le dzad (vieillard) et la baba (vieille femme), interprétés respectivement par une jeune fille et un jeune homme, dialoguent avec le public. Au cours de la pièce, les tsars se rendent chez les jeunes filles non mariées du village pour jouer des comédies et recevoir bons vœux et récompenses. La procession se poursuit pendant la nuit, à la lueur des torches. L’incorporation, dans la pièce, d’allusions à des aspects de la vie moderne ainsi qu’à des communautés ethniques, des groupes et des individus, a fait de ce théâtre un exemple vivant de diversité culturelle. De nos jours, bien que très prisée des habitants les plus âgés, cette tradition perd de sa popularité auprès des jeunes générations, ce qui pourrait provoquer une rupture de la transmission des connaissances relatives à la fabrication des costumes, des instruments, des décorations intérieures et des plats spécifiques associés – tout un patrimoine immatériel qui pourrait ne pas survivre à la génération actuelle d’habitants du village.

Rapport périodique

Rapport périodique (USL)

A. Page de couverture

A.1.

État partie

Nom de l'État partie

Bélarus

A.2.

Date du dépôt de l'instrument de ratification, d'acceptation, d'approbation ou d'adhésion

Elle peut être consultée en ligne.

2005-02-03

A.3.

Élément inscrit sur la Liste de sauvegarde urgente qui fait l'objet du présent rapport

Nom de l'élément

Rite of the Kalyady Tsars (Christmas Tsars)

Inscrit en

2009

A.4.

Période considérée dans le présent rapport

Veuillez indiquer la période couverte par le présent rapport.

16 January 2014 - 15 December 2017

A.5.

Autres éléments inscrits sur la Liste de sauvegarde urgente, le cas échéant

Veuillez établir une liste de tous les autres éléments présents sur le territoire de votre pays qui sont inscrits sur la Liste de sauvegarde urgente et indiquer en quelle année ils y ont été inscrits ; pour ce qui est des éléments multinationaux, veuillez indiquer quels autres États sont concernés.

Le rite du printemps de Juraǔski Karahod (2019)

A.6.

Synthèse du rapport

Veuillez fournir une synthèse du rapport, qui permette au grand public de comprendre l'état actuel de l'élément, mentionne toute incidence positive ou négative de son inscription et fasse état des mesures de sauvegarde mises en œuvre pendant la période considérée et leur possible mise à jour les années suivantes.

The Rite of the Kalyady Tsars (Christmas Kings) was inscribed on the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding List in 2009. This ceremony is celebrated annyaly on January 13 by villagers of Semezhava (Minsk region, Central Belarus). This is a day before the New Year Eve (in accordance with the old Julian style calendar) known as 'Generous Evening'. The ritual is a part of the traditional Belarusian Christmas and New Year’s carnival. Traditionally, the ceremony is held by the young guys who on the Generous Evening do rounds the village door-to-door and perfom the folk play “Tsar Maximilian”. After the perfomance, villagers endow the performers by Christmas food and sweets. This rite concludes the Christmas period and signals the beginning of the New Year. The coming of "tsars" facilitates well-being and a rich New Year. The idea of the 'Kalyady Tsars’ rite provides the values of friendship, mutual cooperation, harmony of human and nature, as well as serve a factor of self-identification for villagers.
Political, social and economic changes which took place in Belarus for 20 century, influenced the fact that a certain period of time (during the Second World War and to the end of the 1960s) the rite was not performed by the local community, but it has been fully restored in 1996. Since 1996 and for today constantly practised and maintained by its bearers.
At the time of inscribing the rite on the Urgent Safeguarding List, there were some problems with its safeguarding and viability. Among them are demographic and social problems (aging of villagers, a lack of jobs, and as a consequence -- the outflow of young people to the city). However, since 2009 and to – date a number of safeguarding measures was implemented. They proved to be quite effective, thanks to the constant and purposeful work of locals themselves, as well as local authorities and various partners such as the Student Ethnographic Society, Institute of Culture of Belarus, the the Belarusian National Academy of Sciences, the Belarusian Association of Rural Tourism and various media.
During the reporting period (2014 - 2017) the following measures to safeguard the element have been implemented:
(1) the transmission of the element has been extended due to the involvement of new young performers in the rite. There is established a constant learning process between older bearers of the rite and the young . The local high school students became involved.
2) Local enthusiasts from the Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava Community "Semyazhovachka" in partnership with the Department of Ethnology of the Belarusian State University conducted field researches of intangible cultural heritage of the village, including local cuisine, crafts and traditional knowledge.
3) The study of local traditions and knowledge has integrated in the program of the local secondary school. Teachers are the older people of the village, as well as the performers of the rite "Kalyady Tsars".
4) The local people are actively cooperating with mass media. Each year the ceremony is increased by the journalists of national and foreign media and tourists. In 2016 for example, the rite was attended by over 1,000 people.
5) The locals preserve traditional cultural landscape of the village, its traditional wooden architecture and crafts. Their red and white weaving also was inscribed on the National Inventory of intangible cultural heritage of Belarus.
6) The social and economic climate in the Semezhava village was improved due to the development of local agricultural industrial complex, but the demographic problems are still relevant.
The rite is recognized by the local community as an important part of their identity and actively practiced by them, including young villagers. The local community is actively developing other forms of their heritage, tangible and intangible, actively promotes them by attracting cultural tourist organizations, mass media and different funds as well as develops new forms of informal education.

A.7.

Personne à contacter pour la correspondance

Donnez le nom, l'adresse et les coordonnées d'une personne à qui toute correspondance concernant le rapport doit être adressée.

Titre (Mme/M., etc.)

Ms

Nom de famille

Khvir

Prénom

Natalya

Institution/fonction

Head Department for the Protection of Historical and Cultural Heritage Ministry of Culture of the Republic of

Adresse

Pobeditelej Avenue 11
Minsk 220030

Numéro de téléphone

+375 44 5351 830

Adresse électronique

n.khvir@gmail.com

Autres informations pertinentes


B. État de l'élément inscrit sur la Liste de sauvegarde urgente

Veuillez vous référer au dossier de candidature ou aux précédents rapports, le cas échéant, pour savoir quand établir un rapport sur l'état actuel de l'élément et ne rendez compte que des changements pertinents survenus depuis la date de son inscription sur la Liste ou depuis le précédent rapport. Les dossiers de candidature, les calendriers spécifiques et les précédents rapports, le cas échéant, sont disponibles à l'adresse suivante : https://ich.unesco.org ou peuvent être demandés au Secrétariat.

L'État partie s'efforce de prêter une attention particulière au rôle du genre et d'assurer la plus large participation possible des communautés, des groupes et, le cas échéant, des individus concernés ainsi que des organisations non gouvernementales pertinentes pendant le processus de préparation de ce rapport ; il lui est demandé au point D ci-dessous de décrire de quelle manière il y est parvenu.

B.1.

Fonctions sociales et culturelles

Expliquez les fonctions, les significations sociales et culturelles de l'élément aujourd'hui, au sein et pour ces communautés, les caractéristiques de ses détenteurs et de ses praticiens et décrivez, entre autres, toute catégorie de personnes exerçant un rôle ou des responsabilités spécifiques vis-à-vis de l'élément. Une attention particulière devrait être accordée à tout changement pertinent susceptible d'avoir des répercussions sur le critère d’inscription U.1 (« L’élément est constitutif du patrimoine culturel immatériel tel que défini à l'article 2 de la Convention »).

In the modern time the rite 'Kalyady Tsars' actively practiced by the local community. Villagers believe this ritual as their historical and cultural value and they are proud of it, contributing to its development. The rite is carried out strictly in a certain period - on 13th of January annually. The local community believes to be important to keep all traditional rules of ritual practices. They opposed to any change, if they violate the traditional context. This approach reflects the emotional evaluation of the rite and the need for its safeguarding on the part of society. As a major annual event for Semezhava people to celebrate Christmas days and beginning of the New year, the rite 'Kalyady Tsars' also demonstrates local oral traditions, performing arts, as well as all the advantages of local cuisine, a cultural space loaded with social practices, life experience and traditional knowledge.
The rite also performs a consolidating function for local residents, united by the common activity. For the young people it is a form of their free time, the opportunity to express their creativity, get an approval from villagers and the respected people.
In cultural sense, the practice of the participation in the rite is used as an informal education tool and raise visibility. Local young people take part in the procession of Kalyady Tsars directly or participate in the role of observers, feel their belonging to the local community, have respect for local culture and heritage. This awareness is rising collectively and naturally in them.
The active bearers of the rite are people of different generations. Among those who revived the rite in 1996, Georgy Tsimanau and Dmitry Kozel have the most clear position. Now they play the role of facilitators for local youth, train them by the main features of the rite and its specifity in cultural and semiotic sense. Young men as in previous times should serve as the main actors during the ceremony. For today, two groups of "Tsar" (12 people each) participate in the rite. Functions of the rite performers have not changed. By tradition, they play certain roles: seven Tsars, one 'Mehanosha' (one who wears a fur), Grandfather ('Dzied) and Grandmother (Baba) (in this case, a man performs the female lead), Doctor, Musician. Other villagers cook ritual dishes, costumes, and every year organize a local market during the celebration day.
The rite has not lost its traditional context and still meets all the characteristics of the intangible cultural heritage.

B.2.

Analyse de sa viabilité et risques auxquels il est actuellement exposé

Décrivez le degré actuel de viabilité de l'élément, en particulier la fréquence et l'étendue de sa pratique, la vigueur des modes de transmission traditionnels, la composition démographique des praticiens et des publics, et sa durabilité. Veuillez aussi identifier et décrire les facteurs qui, le cas échéant, constituent une menace pour la pérennité de la transmission et de la représentation de l'élément et indiquez le degré de gravité et de proximité de tels facteurs, en accordant une attention particulière à tout renforcement ou affaiblissement de la viabilité de l'élément suite à son inscription.

The rite 'Kalyady Tsars' of Semezhava village got its second birth in 1996, after 20 years of neglecting of the Soviet epoch, thanks to the initiative of the local community. Since then he has been held annually in a defined time - 13th of January. Traditionally, it is held by young people, the other members of the community support it, participating in ceremony, assisting in the preparation of ritual food, costumes, creating the atmosphere of joint holiday.
Since the Kalyady Tsars’ inscription on the UNESCO Urgent Safeguarding list in 2009, this element has made some very encouraging developments. Various activities undertaken by the stakeholders are intended to safeguard this rite from the threat of vanishing.
Due to the continuous work of local activists, primarily -- Georgy Tsimanau, which is actively working with young people and transmits them the knowledge of the rite, involves them in the ceremony preparation and participation, made the process of succession from the older generation to younger one more viable and natural.
The local secondary school included the studying of local history and culture, traditions in the school programmes.
Every year on January 13 the Semezhava village is visited by a large number of visitors. The local fair is held in the main square, where everybody can taste local dishes, buy local crafts and souvenirs, and then take part in the ceremony.
During the celebration of the ritual, this event widely be covered by the media, including foreign ones, there are special programs on national television.
The local non-governmental organization, the Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava Community ‘Semyazhovachka’ also contributes to the safeguarding of the rite and the dissemination of knowledge about it. Its members involve other villagers at the celebration ceremony, for example local women for studying and promotion of the local cuisine during the celebration and other local events. The consolidating role for the whole community performs local Centre of Culture and the House of Crafts. They help participants of the ceremony in the organizational issues. The financial assistance was provided by local authorities and the local agricultural enterprise.
Threats, challenges.
Demographic problems. Despite the fact that in recent times the effective development of the local agricultural enterprises and the service sector in Semezhava rural area slightly improved the situation with demography, that allowed to create new jobs and provided a work for part of the youth, but the situation still remains critical. Most of the young people leave the countryside for the sake of a career and better quality of life.
Due to the economic crisis, which affected Belarus at the global level, the implementation of the State Programme of sustainable sustainable development of small towns and villages run slowly and Semezhava village which was a part of the programme now practically doesn’t receive the state financial assistance for last few years. On the other hand, local activists introduced with the project management activity and had already technical support from the Geman and the USA Embassies in the Republic of Belarus for the development of local crafts and organization of the local cusine festival. All of these forms of activity contribute to the sustainable development of the local community and, of course, the ritual 'Kalyady Tsars' which is the most expressive form of local identity.
Folklorisation. Inscribing the rite on the UNESCO Urgent Safeguarding List increased an attention to it from a side of mass media and tourists and stimulated the desire of some local officials to impose to the rite's participants the scenic forms of performance wihich are not peculiar to them and may ultimately lead to the loss of context. Georgy Timon and other activists try to resist these interventions, advocating the safeguarding of the context, disseminating the information about the rite, making extensive use of the media. To protect their rights, they now are developing the Code of Ethics, which would contain the rules of behavior for their community, and for other stakeholders and tourists.
Necessity of additional knowledge. The mojority of the community members expressed that they need an additional knowledge about the practices of the safeguarding of ICH in other countries, as well as they would like to expand its partnerships, to get information about other such elements in the world.

B.3.

Mise en œuvre des mesures de sauvegarde

Veuillez rendre compte des mesures de sauvegardes qui ont été décrites dans le dossier de candidature et dans un précédent rapport, le cas échéant. Décrivez de quelle manière elles ont été mises en œuvre et ont contribué de façon substantielle à la sauvegarde de l'élément au cours de la période considérée, en tenant compte des contraintes externes ou internes telles que des ressources limitées. Incluez en particulier des informations sur les mesures prises afin d'assurer la viabilité de l'élément en permettant à la communauté d'en poursuivre la pratique et la transmission. Fournissez les renseignements suivants en ce qui concerne la mise en œuvre de l’ensemble des mesures de sauvegarde ou du plan de sauvegarde :

B.3.a. Objectifs et résultats

Indiquez quels objectifs principaux ont été atteints et quels résultats concrets ont été obtenus pendant la période considérée.

During the reporting period , all planned safeguarding measures of the element have been basically implemented and further expanded in accordance with objectives and expected results. Specific achievements are stated as follows:

1) Provide major support for the rite's bearers and carry out transmission and practice in a planned way
Since the Kalyady Tsars’s inscription on the UNESCO Urgent Safeguarding List and subsequent periods, the Ministry of Culture of the Republuc of Belarus, Kopyl District Adminstration and local authotity of Semezhava village as well as the beares of the rite and local community have been safeguarding the ICH element. The main safeguarding targets are the rite bearers, including the most experienced among them which now transmit their practice and skills as well as young participants of the perfomance and other members of community. Safeguarding and support of the bearers of the rite "Kalyady Tsars" is provided by the State Programme "Culture " on 2015 -- 2020, including the financial support for local Centre of Culture, directly performers and the Crafts House. The great role in the transmition process belongs to bearers themselves. The most skilled rite's participants transmit their knoweledge and practical information during special courses in the Semezhava secondary school. Information about the element keeps and transmit in the local families.
2) Integrate the information about the rite and its value into informal and formal education
The knoweledge about local history and culture and traditions, including the rite integrated in the programme of local secondary school. Local performers, in particular Georgy Tsimanau and other actors as well as local crafts persons act as teachers for local pupils.
3) Carry out the constant monitoring of the rite conditions and safeguarding its context from the threat of commercialization and the exploitation with tourist matter.
The monitoring of the the rite conditions and safeguarding its context annually provided by the Minsk Regional Curatorial Centre as well as active bearers themselves.
4) Ensure promotion and visibility of the element.
The promotion and visibility of the rite "Kalyady Tsars" was provided through the constant cooperation with mass media so as the bearers themselves as local authority and the Ministry of Culture.

B.3.b. Activités de sauvegarde

Dressez la liste des principales activités menées au cours de la période considérée pour obtenir ces résultats escomptés. Veuillez décrire les activités en détail en mentionnant leur efficacité et tout problème rencontré dans leur mise en œuvre.

All safeguarding measures for the ICH element -- the rite 'Kalyady Tsars' were implemented by the ritual bearers themselves together with experts, cultural and educational institutions, non-governmental organizations, state and local authorities with an aim to provide the viability of the element, its continuous transmission and promotion.
Key safeguarding activities during the reporting period (2014 -- 2017) are as follows:
1) Provide major support for the bearers and the element transmission.
The Ministry of Culture of Belarus supports the rite 'Kalyady Tsars' in the framework of the State Programme of the Development of the Belarusian Culture "Culture of Belarus' for 2015 - 2020. The financial support was provided for the development of local cultural institutions including the Semezhava Centre of Culture and local House of Crafts as well as the rite bearers with subsidies offered accordingly to motivate their transmission awareness and responsibility.
Local authority of Kopyl district through its Cultural Department support the activity on safeguarding of the element 'Kalyady Tsars' providing preferential policy for bearers in their desire to transmit their knowledge to the younger generation, helping to organize their work with school children, involving them to participate in various festivals related to the ICH..
2) Integration the knowledge about the element into formal and informal education.
For the local school students were established and held special training courses: "Holy and rituals of our village", "The wealth of folk traditions", "Living heritage of Belarus", "Food for Christmas. and others.
In 2017 the exhibition dedicated to the rite 'Kalyady Tsars' was opened in a local school.
In 2016 the film 'Land of Fathers' was made, devoted to the Semezhava culture, including the ritual, which was demonstrated at the local Centre of Culture and on the national TV.
The older members of the ceremony have provided the constant trainings with younger participants. Together with local pupils conducted workshops for the production of swords, paper hats and other details of the Tsars costumes.
The exhibition of the Tsats' ceremonial costumes exibits in the local Centre of Culture.
Georgy Tsimanau has special lessons in the local schools: 'As I walked, the Tsars',which he tells about the rite and its cultural and symbolic role.
3) Carry out the constant monitoring of the rite conditions and safeguarding its context
The Institute of Culture of Belarus together with Student Ethnographic Society and Kapyl Cultural Administration as well as Semezhava local practitioners annually organize the monitoring of the rite 'Kalyady Tsars' viability, survey the residents with a matter to know any changes and identify risks and problems. The data is published on the database of the National ICH Inventory and is analysed by the Minsk Regional Curatorial Centre and Kapyl Cultural Administration.
3) Ensure promotion and visibility of the element.
The promotion and visibility of the rite "Kalyady Tsars" was realised by means of different mass media, including radio, TV on the local and national level as well as via different festivals and educational work in local secondary schools and at the Belarusian State University and the Belarusian State University of Culture and Arts which were provided by forces of teachers and students.

B.3.c. Participation de communautés, de groupes ou d'individus aux activités de sauvegarde

Veuillez décrire de quelle manière les communautés, les groupes ou, le cas échéant, les individus ainsi que les organisations non gouvernementales pertinentes ont participé de façon effective à l'exécution des mesures de sauvegarde, y compris en termes de rôles du genre. Décrivez le rôle joué par l'organisation ou l'organe chargé de l'exécution (dénomination, informations de référence, etc.) et les ressources humaines qui ont été mises à disposition pour la mise en œuvre des activités de sauvegarde.

Locals believe the rite of 'Kalyady Tsars' is a part of their identity. They carefully safeguard it and try to keep all the rules and ethical principles associated with the rite. The bearers of the rite were involved in the training work with local school children, giving them the knowledge and skills about the tradition.
Local residents warmly greeted guests of the festival in their houses and invited them to share the holiday dinner. On the day of the ceremony locals always organize the Fair of traditional crafts and local cuisine, in which are given the opportunity of tasting local dishes.
Local activists organized the Ethnic Culture Association in the Semezhava village and together with other NGO's such as the Student Ethnography Society (SES) provide a great work for informal education and raising awareness about the rite of 'Kalyady Tsars" and its social and cultural value. As mentioned in previous parts of this report, there is constant contacts between the most active bearers like Georgy Tsimanau and others and local secondary schools. The bearers of the rite act as teachers for local young people and transmit their knowledge and skills to young generation.

B.3.d. Calendrier et budget

Indiquez, sous forme de calendrier, les dates de mise en œuvre de chacune des activités et quels fonds ont été utilisés à cette fin, en indiquant dans chaque cas l'origine du financement (sources gouvernementales, contributions en nature des communautés locales, etc.).

.
2014--2017, January 13 'Living' practice of the element. Financial support for the organization of the local fair and festival in Semezhava village. They were conducted in a day of the rite 'Kalyady Tsars' performance by the local community. Financial assistance was provided by the Semezhava agricultural enterprise and the Kopyl local authority. The rite performers' costumes were made by hands of bearers themselves and subsidised by the Kopyl Cultural Department, 15, 000 BYR as well as investments in-kind inputs by the community of Semezhava village.
Since 2010 - the safeguarding of the Kalyady Tsars is one of the main priorities of the State Programme for Development of the Belarusian Culture for 2015 - 2020. This is a financial support of the bearers of the rite, adoption of the school programme for studying of the local culture and handicrafts, the development of the local House of Handicrafts as a centre of local traditional culture: 2015 -- 2017 -- about 10,000 BYR);
The Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava together with the experts from the Institute of Culture of Belarus and the Student Ethnograthic Society has provided four seminars on safeguarding measures and promotion of the ICH element (2014-2017), 5,000 BYR
In 2017 the exhibition dedicated to the rite 'Kalyady Tsars' was opened in a local school, 5,000 BYR
In 2016 the film 'Land of Fathers' made, devoted to the Semezhava culture, including the ritual, which was demonstrated at the local Centre of Culture and on the national TV, financial assistance from the Belarusian Agroprombank in the collaboration with Kapyl Cultural Department, 10,000 BYR
2016, The exhibition of the Tsats' ceremonial costumes exibits in the local Centre of Culture, in-kind community inputs.
2014 -- 2017, the constant monitoring of the rite conditions and safeguarding its context, 2,000 BYR, Institute of Culture of Belarus
2016 -- 2017, three workshops for loca entrepreneurs were organized as part of the adult education program. Financial support was provided by the Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany in the Republic of Belarus, 5,000 BYR.

B.3.e. Efficacité globale des activités de sauvegarde

Procédez à une évaluation globale de l'efficacité des activités menées pour parvenir aux résultats escomptés et de l'utilisation des fonds nécessaires à leur mise en œuvre. Veuillez indiquer de quelles manières les activités ont contribué à l’obtention des résultats et si d'autres activités auraient été mieux adaptées à cette fin. Indiquez aussi si les mêmes résultats auraient pu être obtenus avec de moindres ressources financières, si les ressources humaines disponibles étaient appropriées et si les communautés, groupes et individus concernés auraient pu participer davantage.

All the activities described in the point B 3d were organized with the aim to safeguard the rite 'Kalyady Tsars'. It can be seen from the types of activities mentioned above, that they were carried out not only for creating spaces for the rite to be performed but also to cater to the community empowerment efforts. The wider communities are actively involved in the safeguard of the element. National (Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Belarus) or provincial (district) governments which performs their role as a facilitator for the communities. Following the principle of government as a public servant, any activity organized is, as much as possible, to reflect the wishes and needs of the community in its efforts to safeguard the ICH element of Semezhava village. The main purpose of the State Programme for the development of culture 'Culture of Belarus' (updated every 5 years) in a part of supporting of the element inscrived in the UNESCO Urgent Safeguarding List -- the rite of 'Kalyady Tsars' is expected that the existing human resources can fully concentrate on running its programs and will be more open to opportunities for developing their creativity. Community, leading performers and other participants will have clearer lines of communication and coordination in the formulation of plan and execution of the rite of 'Kalyady Tsars' safeguarding programs.
During the reporting period, the rite of ‘Kalyady Tsars’ safeguarding activities focused on giving emphasis on community empowerment through the strengthening of human resources through programs such as capacity building and training of bearers and other community activists. A series of activities aimed to expand the transmission and promotion of the element using all forms formal and informal elducation, efforts and possibilities of cultural sustanble tourism and constant work with mass media.
Unfortunately, the state financial support is limited in the period of the economic crisis, which currently covers the Belarusian economy. Nevertheless, to solve the demographic problems inherent in Semezhava's community, more serious investments are needed.
It is also necessary to provide financing for the development of the village infrastructure, its improvement, the opening of an information and educational center for tourists and villagers with appropriate equipment, etc. All these measures are needed to improve the quality of life of the local community and its sustainable development.
It is also necessary to expand the opportunities for the education of the adult population of the village, to acquaint them with the already existing best practices for the safeguarding of the intangible cultural heritage, to expand international cooperation and the partnership network.

C. Mise à jour des mesures de sauvegarde

C.1.

Plan de sauvegarde mis à jour

Veuillez fournir une mise à jour du plan de sauvegarde inclus dans le dossier de candidature ou dans le précédent rapport. En particulier, veuillez donner des informations détaillées comme suit :

  1. a. Quels sont les objectifs principaux visés et les résultats concrets attendus ?
  2. b. Quelles sont les activités principales à mener pour atteindre ces résultats attendus ? Veuillez décrire les activités en détail et dans l'ordre d'exécution, en démontrant leur faisabilité.
  3. c. Comment le ou les États parties concernés soutiennent-ils la mise en œuvre du plan de sauvegarde mis à jour ?

The Safeguarding plan for the rite of ‘Kalyady Tsars’ for the period of 2018 – 2022 is prepared based on the action plan of the previous reporting period that could not be carried out optimally in relation to the various constraints faced concerning time and human resources.
The main threat may come when younger generations deem this element irrelevant (and therefore obsolete). But in a part of 'Kalyady Tsars' rite the links with the tradition were never broken, there were still enough active performers that could transmit it properly to the younger generation, despite of the period of the Soviet time, when the rite was not practiced due to political conditions.
That’s why all measures proposed here have a focus: awareness- raising and enhancement of the value of this element of ICH.

1. Research, documentation and inventorying of the rite of ‘Kalyady Tsars’ in a context of the Semezhava culture and traditions.
Objective:to provide more detailed research and documenting of the the rite of ‘Kalyady Tsars’ and the whole cultural and historical landscape of the Semezhava community.
Results: elaboration of the Semezhava Cultural Inventory; involvement of young people in the process of documenting and inventorying.
Responsible institutions: Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Belarus, Departments of Cultural Studies and Ethnology of the Belaruasian State University, Kopyl District Cultural Department, Minsk Regional Curatorial Centre in ICH, Semezhava Centre of Culture and local secondary school, Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava Community ‘Semyazhovachka’.
Time period: 2018-2020
Budget Estimates: 10,000 USD
Budget Sources: state and regional budgets, private investments.

2. Transmitting the element ‘Kalyady Tsars’ knowledge
Objective: to provide information associated with the value, meaning and function of the ‘Kalyady Tsars’ riite to the community and the people. Dissemination of information can be conducted inside and outside of Semezhava village, for other areas.
Results: a correct understanding of values, meaning, and function as well as various provisions in the ‘Kalyady Tsars’ rite.
Activity: workshops, trainings, seminars
Responsible institutions: Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Belarus, Departments of Cultural Studies and Ethnology of the Belaruasian State University, Kopyl District Cultural Department, Minsk Regional Curatorial Centre in ICH, Semezhava Centre of Culture and local secondary school, Students Ethnography Society (SES), Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava Community ‘Semyazhovachka’.
Time period: 2018-2022
Budget Estimates: 15, 000 USD
Budget Sources: state, regional budgets, private funds

3. Promoting the rite of ‘Kalyady Tsars’
Objective: Introducing the ritual along with the meaning, values, and functions of rite of ‘Kalyady Tsars’ to the public.
Results: Promotion is expected to make people know and understand the ritual of the Semezhava village as an intangible cultural heritage that is laden with meaning, values, and functions. Understanding that the rite of ‘Kalyady Tsars’ not only belongs to the people of Semezhava but also to the people of Belarus and of the world contributes to strengthening Semezhava’s identity.
Activities:
1) Organization of ICH festival and fair in Semezhava village (annyally, a day of the rite performance), 20,000 USD;
2) Making a film about the ‘Kalyady Tsars’ rite (2019), 6, 000 USD;
3) Publication a series of editions and informational materials about the rite (2018), 7,000 USD
4) Organization the exhibition in the National History Museum of the Republic of Belarus to the 10th of anniversary of the element inscribing in the UNESCO Safeguarding List (2019), 15,000 USD.
5) Responsible Institution: Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Belarus, Kopyl District Cultural Department, Minsk Regional Curatorial Centre in ICH, Semezhava Centre of Culture and local secondary school, Students Ethnography Society (SES), Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava Community ‘Semyazhovachka’, mass media

Time period: 2018-2022
Budget Estimates: about 50,000 USD
Budget Source: local government budgets, private funds, in-kind (Semezhava community)

3. Enhancing the capacity of the Semezhava activists and stakeholders
Objective: Training for Semezhava activists and stakeholders is required to improve their skills so as to provide a better level of teaching to local youth. Improving the skills, creativity, and safeguarding management among the community leaders.
Results: improved skills of Semezhava activists and stakeholders. Acceleration transmission of knowledge related to the ‘Kalyady Tsars’ rite and those stakeholders related to it.
Activities: workshops, training
Responsible Institutions: Minsk Regional Curatorial Centre in ICH, Semezhava Centre of Culture and local secondary school, Students Ethnography Society (SES), Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava Community ‘Semyazhovachka’
Time period: 2018-2022
Budget Estimates: 10, 000 USD.
Budget sources: state and local government budgets, private funds

C.2.

Participation des communautés

Veuillez décrire comment les communautés, groupes et individus ainsi que les organisations non gouvernementales pertinentes ont été impliqués, y compris en termes de rôles du genre, dans la mise à jour du plan de sauvegarde et comment ils seront impliqués dans sa mise en œuvre.

All stakeholders related to the rite of ‘Kalyady Tsars’ including the government and the people, groups, communities, and individuals are implementing their respective roles. The government has a position as a facilitator and regulator. It is the people who will implement programs according to what they want and need. The next safeguarding plan will include the participation of wider proportion of society.
In-depth research/studies carried out by individuals who are concerned about the element will be fully supported by the Ministry of Culture. The results of research, documenting, inventorying to enrich the Semezhava community and the rite of ‘Kalyady Tsars’ will be carried out by the community who are to support the achievements of the previous program.
Local inhabitants identify the ceremony "Kalyady Tsars" as their own heritage and are greatly proud of their culture and traditions. They carefully safeguard it and try to keep to all established rules of its carrying out underlying its sacral value. Bearers of the rite participate in the creation of costumes. They provide the work with local schoolchildren and organised the another group of the "Christmas Tsars", which consists of schoolboys of 12-14 years old. Despite only young men are the main actors in the ritual but locals as a whole take part in the ceremony, all of them are bearers of this tradition. They meet many holiday guests, provide housing and invite them to share a celebratory dinner.

C.3.

Contexte institutionnel

Veuillez indiquer quelles institutions sont en charge de la gestion locale et de la sauvegarde de l'élément inscrit sur la Liste de sauvegarde urgente, notamment :

  1. a. l'(les) organisme(s) compétent(s) impliqué(s) dans sa gestion et/ou sa sauvegarde ;
  2. b. l'(les) organisation(s) de la communauté ou du groupe concernée(s) par l'élément et sa sauvegarde.

Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Belarus manages the process for safeguarding of the rite ’Kalyady Tsars' and finances a part of measures for safeguarding of it in the framework of the State Programme for Development of the Belarusian Culture for 2015 - 2020.
Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Belarus
Address: pr. Pobeditelej, 11 Minsk 220004, Belarus
E-mail: ministerstvo@kultura.by
Tel. +375 17203-75-74
Fax: +375 (17) 203-90-45
http://kultura.by/en
Institute of Culture of Belarus
Local authority, in particular, Kapyl District Department for Culture and Semezhava Centre of Culture renders great assistance to the local community of Semezhava in the promotion of the element, dissemination of the information about it, using different sources, including mass media. They are actively engaged in fund raising.
Kopyl District Department of Culture
Lenina Sq,6 Kapyl, Minsk Region
Tatsian Vialentij, Main Specialist
Tel. +375 (01719) 55 3 38

Kapyl District Centre of Traditional Culture
Sonechnaya Str., 12, Kapyl, Minsk Region
Galina Gurlo, Director
Tel. +375 (01719) 33 5 29

Semezhava Centre of Culture
Dubrounaya Str., 1 Semezhava village, Kapyl District, Minsk Region
Tatsiana Shaura, Director
Tel. +375 (01719) 21 106
The local community represented by the group of today's bearers and informers, including the oldest bearers of the rite (Georgy Tsimanau, Ivan Markevich and Mikalai Skamarocha are among them) takes an active part in the promotion and safeguarding of the element.
Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava community was established in 2010. Their work is aimed at the organization of the folklore festival and a series of studies on the history of the ritual and the monitoring of its viability.
Other stakeholders:
Belarusian State University of Culture and Arts together with the National Academy of Sciences provides the studying of the element, organizes workshops for the bearers and local people on the safeguarding of the element.

D. Participation des communautés à l'établissement du présent rapport

Décrivez les mesures qui ont été prises pour assurer la plus large participation possible des communautés, des groupes et, le cas échéant, des individus ainsi que des organisations non gouvernementales pertinentes concernés pendant la préparation du présent rapport.

In preparing the report have been actively involved members of the local community of Semezhava village, including Georgy Tsimanau, Ivan Markevich and Mikalai Skamarocha, a local activists, who were directly involved in the revival of the ceremony, representatives of the local secondary school, Semezhava Centre of Culture, representatives of local House of Crafts. They presented all the necessary documents: pictures, information on the measures to ensure the sageguarding, video recording, etc.
Monitoring the safeguarding conditions of the rite of 'Kalyady Tsars' has been undertaken every year starting from 2010 and concluded in 2017 with this periodic report. There were three workshops with the rite bearers on the safeguarding plan for the element for the next reporting period took place in Semezhava village in 2017.
A great help in the preparation of the report was provided by the Kapyl District Department of Culture. They provide a link with the local community and work closely with carriers rite.

E. Signature au nom de l'État partie

Le rapport doit être signé par un responsable habilité à le signer pour le compte de l’État, avec la mention de son nom, de son titre et de la date de soumission.

Nom

Alexander Yatsko

Titre

Deputy Ministry of Culture of Belarus

Date

12-12-2017

Signature

Chargement du rapport périodique signé


Rapport périodique (USL)

Page de couverture

État partie

Nom de l'État partie

Bélarus

Date du dépôt de l'instrument de ratification, d'acceptation, d'approbation ou d'adhésion

Elle peut être consultée en ligne.

03-02-2005

Élément inscrit sur la Liste de sauvegarde urgente qui fait l'objet du présent rapport

Nom de l'élément

Rite of the Kalyady Tsars (Christmas Tsars)

Inscrit en

2009

Période considérée dans le présent rapport

Veuillez indiquer la période couverte par le présent rapport.

2012 - 12-2013

Autres éléments inscrits sur la Liste de sauvegarde urgente, le cas échéant

Veuillez établir une liste de tous les autres éléments présents sur le territoire de votre pays qui sont inscrits sur la Liste de sauvegarde urgente et indiquer en quelle année ils y ont été inscrits ; pour ce qui est des éléments multinationaux, veuillez indiquer quels autres États sont concernés.

Le rite des Tsars de Kalyady (Tsars de Noël) (2009)

Synthèse du rapport

Veuillez fournir une synthèse du rapport, qui permette au grand public de comprendre l'état actuel de l'élément, mentionne toute incidence positive ou négative de son inscription et fasse état des mesures de sauvegarde mises en œuvre pendant la période considérée et leur possible mise à jour les années suivantes.

The Rite of the “Kalyady Tsars” is the element of the intangible cultural heritage of Belarus inscribed in 2009 on the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding. The rite is celebrated annually on January 13 (New Year’s day for Orthodox Christmas known as “Generous evening” according to the old Julian style calendar) by the villagers of Semezhava (Minsk region, Central Belarus). The ritual is a part of the traditional Belarusian Christmas and New Year’s carnival.
Inscription of the element on the Urgent Safeguarding List has stimulated a broad spectrum of the activity for its sageguarding and promotion from the local community, the Ministry of Culture, local authorities, mass media, different non-governmental organizations and representatives of the tourism sector.
Measures undertaken by local community and administration involve a wide range of activities, including the transmission of the practical knowledge through the direct family communication between older and younger villagers, as well as workshops and individual work with bearers was provided by the Institute of Culture of Belarus and Student Ethnography Association, through educational activity at Semezhava school, documentation and inventorying of local heritage conducted by local activists in collaboration with students of the Belarusian State University (2012 – 2013). As a result of this investigation the book “Traditional Cuisine of Semezhava” was published. It was written on the basis of the stories of local residents and under their direct participation. In September 2013 there was the broad presentation of this book which included the tasting of local dishes. The book gives many details of dishes which used during the rite of "Kalyady Tsars".
Since 2011 the Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava Community was created. Together with the experts from the Institute for Culture of Belarus the representatives of this Association provide annual monitoring of the ongoing viability of the element. By efforts of the association and personally Georgij Tsimanau (the most active perfomer of the rite) some local schoolkids now joint to the adult group of Tsars and created their own ritual group. During two last year they have actively participated at the holiday. Belarusain Association of Rural Tourism has been actively cooperating with the local community and helps them in a number of tourism projects.
In general, as it seems to us today the element "Kalyady Tsars" is fairly stable. It is recognized by the local community as an important part of their identity and actively practiced by them, including young villagers. The local community is actively developing other forms of their heritage, tangible and intangible, actively promotes them by attracting tourist organizations, mass media and different funds.

Personne à contacter pour la correspondance

Donnez le nom, l'adresse et les coordonnées d'une personne à qui toute correspondance concernant le rapport doit être adressée.

Titre (Mme/M., etc.)

Ms

Nom de famille

STASHKEVICH

Prénom

ALLA

Institution/fonction

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT ON THE PRESERVATION OF HISTORIC AND CULTURAL HERITAGE, INSTITUTE OF CULTURE OF BELARUS

Adresse

UL. KALINOVSKOGO, 12 MINSK 220086

Numéro de téléphone

+375 29 332 03 94

Numéro de fax

+375 17 267 17 33

Adresse électronique

AS.BELICOM@GMAIL.COM

Autres informations pertinentes


B. État de l'élément inscrit sur la Liste de sauvegarde urgente

Veuillez vous référer au dossier de candidature ou aux précédents rapports, le cas échéant, pour savoir quand établir un rapport sur l'état actuel de l'élément et ne rendez compte que des changements pertinents survenus depuis la date de son inscription sur la Liste ou depuis le précédent rapport. Les dossiers de candidature, les calendriers spécifiques et les précédents rapports, le cas échéant, sont disponibles à l'adresse suivante : https://ich.unesco.org ou peuvent être demandés au Secrétariat.

L'État partie s'efforce de prêter une attention particulière au rôle du genre et d'assurer la plus large participation possible des communautés, des groupes et, le cas échéant, des individus concernés ainsi que des organisations non gouvernementales pertinentes pendant le processus de préparation de ce rapport ; il lui est demandé au point D ci-dessous de décrire de quelle manière il y est parvenu.

B.1. Fonctions sociales et culturelles

Expliquez les fonctions, les significations sociales et culturelles de l'élément aujourd'hui, au sein et pour ces communautés, les caractéristiques de ses détenteurs et de ses praticiens et décrivez, entre autres, toute catégorie de personnes exerçant un rôle ou des responsabilités spécifiques vis-à-vis de l'élément. Une attention particulière devrait être accordée à tout changement pertinent susceptible d'avoir des répercussions sur le critère d’inscription U.1 (« L’élément est constitutif du patrimoine culturel immatériel tel que défini à l'article 2 de la Convention »).

Nowadays the Rite "Kalyady Tsars" actively practiced by local community. The inhabitants of Semezhava village consider the rite as their cultural value. They are proud of it and in every way promote. The rite kept its cultural and social functions and even sacral role. The ceremony concludes the period of holidays after the strict Christmas Festival (according to orthodox tradition) and signalizes the beginning of a new year. The villagers believe that it is very important to keep the all structure of the ceremony- its schedule and rules. The Tsars’ visits are believed to be a sign of prosperity for every family in the coming year.
The active bearers of tradition are the group of young men headed by Georgij Tsimanau (Tsars directly, actors). Today the group of schoolkids has jointed to them and also practice the rite. Other villagers prepare the ritual meals, costumes and every year organize the local fair at the day the holiday.
The rite kept its important role for the community, its social (as a part of collective memory and social life of villagers) and sacral (as a ceremony devoted with some local ideas about the world and community's beliefs) functions.

B.2. Analyse de sa viabilité et risques auxquels il est actuellement exposé

Décrivez le degré actuel de viabilité de l'élément, en particulier la fréquence et l'étendue de sa pratique, la vigueur des modes de transmission traditionnels, la composition démographique des praticiens et des publics, et sa durabilité. Veuillez aussi identifier et décrire les facteurs qui, le cas échéant, constituent une menace pour la pérennité de la transmission et de la représentation de l'élément et indiquez le degré de gravité et de proximité de tels facteurs, en accordant une attention particulière à tout renforcement ou affaiblissement de la viabilité de l'élément suite à son inscription.

The Kalyady Tsars ritual obtained a new impetus to life in 1980s after 20 years of oblivion during the Soviet epoch. But the great interest to it from the side of the community and experts was launched in 1990s. Since then the rite has been annually performed as in former times.
Traditionally, the ritual has been performed only by young men. This fact is very important because it per se enhances the participation of youth in this ceremony. But it was a real risk to lost this element because many of young people left the village due the lack of economic prospects. After the including the Semezhava village into the State Programme of the Development of Small Towns and Villages of Belarus many young people began to stay at the village and are working at the local rural farm and some industrial enterprises. Semezhava's school actively promotes the village heritage among schoolkids. During two last year children group of Tsars participates at the ceremony.
Among serious threats for the viability of the rite is a lack of direct transmission of knowledge and skills in the framework of a family, from father to son, from grandfather to grandson, as before. Today, the main role of the transmitters is carried out by the most active former and today's participants of the rite. Georgij Tsimanau, the most active performer among the Tsars, is one of these transmitters. In 2010, during the ritual he played the role of Tsar Mamai. Georgij Tsimanau provides a great work aiming at increasing awareness among all members of the community. He trains the regulations for young participants of the rite.
According to interviews of the local residents to mass media, they are very proud of their heritage and underline that this ritual is unique, it exists only in their village and nowhere else. Many former residents of the village, who emigrated many years ago, try to come home during the holidays and take part in it.
But new challenges appeared. This is a lack of modern infrastructure for tourists, including the hotel, restaurants, information centre, etc. In 2012 more than 500 people, including tourists visited the village during the holiday. The Community association now elaborates the project of integrative conservation for the protection their heritage through the involvement it in modern economical processes and is engaged in the search of additional investments.

B.3. Mise en œuvre des mesures de sauvegarde

Veuillez rendre compte des mesures de sauvegardes qui ont été décrites dans le dossier de candidature et dans un précédent rapport, le cas échéant. Décrivez de quelle manière elles ont été mises en œuvre et ont contribué de façon substantielle à la sauvegarde de l'élément au cours de la période considérée, en tenant compte des contraintes externes ou internes telles que des ressources limitées. Incluez en particulier des informations sur les mesures prises afin d'assurer la viabilité de l'élément en permettant à la communauté d'en poursuivre la pratique et la transmission. Fournissez les renseignements suivants en ce qui concerne la mise en œuvre de l’ensemble des mesures de sauvegarde ou du plan de sauvegarde :

B.3.a. Objectifs et résultats

Indiquez quels objectifs principaux ont été atteints et quels résultats concrets ont été obtenus pendant la période considérée.

Following on from the inscription of the Kalyady Tsars rite on the Historical and Cultural Heritage List of the Republic of Belarus, the local community and authorities have proposed a series of measures to help safeguard the element. The measures are intended to increase awareness among the members of the community of the rite's status as a part of local intangible cultural heritage and provide the sustained development of the element. The measures also include the introduction of an annual award for the protection of traditions of Semezhava, which is aimed at expanding the circle of participants and involve as many young people in the activities for preservation and revival of local culture as possible. Several measures concern the dissemination of information about the rite - via the production of a series of programmes on the Kalyady Tsars by the national mass media, the publication of special print and electronic material to help ensure its popularity and continuity.
All these measures were realised during some years.
Nowadays rite "Kalyady Tsars"gained wide popularity, thankful to the activity of mass media, efforts of the Ministry of Culture, local community. Last year more than 500 persons: tourists, journalists, and students visited the village during the feast. Usually at that day the residents organize a big fair on which products of local artisans are sell. Everybody can taste the dishes of traditional cuisine. Many experts argue that the meal in Semezhava has original and diverse nature.
Today the development of the element is quite stable. It is supported and practiced by locals, including the youth. The village was included into a number of State investment programmes and gradually is strengthened economically. Many young people now stay to work at the village. In Semezhava there are a big school and a number of cultural institutions: a museum, house of crafts, cultural centre. But there are a lack of restourants, a hotel and other modern infrastructure.
A series of seminars was held with the representatives of local community, actors and craftsmen. The topics of the seminars were different, including cultural and economical development, the safeguarding measures, the role of community in the safeguarding of ICH and others. Organisers of these seminars were Institute of Culture of Belarus, Association of Rural Tourism, Student Ethnography Association.

B.3.b. Activités de sauvegarde

Dressez la liste des principales activités menées au cours de la période considérée pour obtenir ces résultats escomptés. Veuillez décrire les activités en détail en mentionnant leur efficacité et tout problème rencontré dans leur mise en œuvre.

The inscription of the “Kalyady Tsars” rite in November 2009 on the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding gave a new creative urge to its development and promotion.
All safeguarding measures for the element are decided upon jointly by the bearers, experts and state institutions, to protect and provide the continuous practice of the rite. The activity on the element safeguarding is realised on different levels:
1) Ministry of Culture of Belarus provides the support of the rite :Kalyady Tsars" by means of its including like one of priorities into the State Programme for the Development of the Belarusian Culture for 2010 - 2015. The programme provides the organization of the annual folklore festival and fair in Semezhava village, financial support of bearers of the rite, adoption of the school programme for studying of the local culture and handicrafts, the development of the local House of Crafts as a centre of local traditional culture.
2) The Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava Community together with the experts from the Institute for Culture of Belarus has provided two seminars on safeguarding measures and the inventorying of local heritage (2012-2013).
Thankful to the private financial support the material on the local food traditions were collected and published in the book "Traditional Cuisine of Semezhava". The presentation of the book and the fest of traditional meal was on September 2013.
4) Student Ethnography Association, Institute of Culture of Belarus organised a serie of expeditions to the neighboring villages aimed to know about analogical rituals.
Despite the fact that such rites were recorded before in neighboring with Semezhava places, but the living tradition exists only in Semezhava. But the big interesting data has been collected during the expeditions, allowing better to learn about the history of the rite Kalyady Tsars. The results of investigations were published on the website of the National Inventory of the Belarusian ICH -- http://www.livingheritage.by/events/2150/.
5) Since 2011 local children participate at the rite as a separate group of Tsars -- small Tsars, providing natural transmission of the element.
The rite «Кalyady Tsars» will take place again in the Semezhava village on January 13, 2014. Together with local residents, hundreds of tourists and journalists will participate to the traditional ceremony.

B.3.c. Participation de communautés, de groupes ou d'individus aux activités de sauvegarde

Veuillez décrire de quelle manière les communautés, les groupes ou, le cas échéant, les individus ainsi que les organisations non gouvernementales pertinentes ont participé de façon effective à l'exécution des mesures de sauvegarde, y compris en termes de rôles du genre. Décrivez le rôle joué par l'organisation ou l'organe chargé de l'exécution (dénomination, informations de référence, etc.) et les ressources humaines qui ont été mises à disposition pour la mise en œuvre des activités de sauvegarde.

Many actions on safeguarding of the element have been initiated by the inhabitants of Semezhava village themselves. They were very glad and proud when learnt from the news about the inscription of the "Kalyady Tsars" on the a UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in need of Urgent Safeguarding. Every year during the ceremony the local community organises the meeting of many guests, provides their accomodation and meal. They also actively participate in the promotion of their own heritage, conducting of its researching. Thankful to the initiative of the residents the book "Traditional Cousine of Semezhava" was published and broadly presented.

B.3.d. Calendrier et budget

Indiquez, sous forme de calendrier, les dates de mise en œuvre de chacune des activités et quels fonds ont été utilisés à cette fin, en indiquant dans chaque cas l'origine du financement (sources gouvernementales, contributions en nature des communautés locales, etc.).

Promotion of the element, raising of its visibility and viability:
2012-2013 - constant work with mass media; creation of TV and radio programmes devoted to the rite;
January 2013 - the organization of the fair of local crafts (financial support from Agro-tourism association and AgroBank of Belarus (about 12 000 USD);
Measures on providing the viability of the element:
Since 2010 - the safeguarding of the Kalyady Tsars is one of the main priorities of the State Programme for Development of the Belarusian Culture for 2010 - 2015. The programme provides the organization of the annual folklore festival and fair in Semezhava village, financial support of the bearers of the rite, adoption of the school programme for studying of the local culture and handicrafts, the development of the local House of Handicrafts as a centre of local traditional culture: 2012 -- the creation of costumes for new group of "Kalyady Tsar" (schoolkids (12-14 years old) -- 6 000 USD); 2013 -- organization of the festival of local meals);
2013 -- publication of the book "Traditional Cuisine of Semezhava" (10 000 USD, private money).
2012 -- 2013 -- researching of archives and expedition work (Institute of Culture of Belarus and Student Ethnography Association).

B.3.e Efficacité globale des activités de sauvegarde

Procédez à une évaluation globale de l'efficacité des activités menées pour parvenir aux résultats escomptés et de l'utilisation des fonds nécessaires à leur mise en œuvre. Veuillez indiquer de quelles manières les activités ont contribué à l’obtention des résultats et si d'autres activités auraient été mieux adaptées à cette fin. Indiquez aussi si les mêmes résultats auraient pu être obtenus avec de moindres ressources financières, si les ressources humaines disponibles étaient appropriées et si les communautés, groupes et individus concernés auraient pu participer davantage.

The activity described above for promoting and providing of the viability of the element was quite effective. The element became well-known not only among the local community, but also at the national and international level. It has greatly enhanced the self- identification of local people and awoken the interest to local traditions among the young people.
The including of Semezhava village in the State Programme of the Development of Small Towns and Villages of Belarus has a great impact on the development. It enhanceв the social and cultural development of the village and the position of the young residents.
The safeguarding of the Kalyady Tsars is one of the main priorities of the State Programme for Developing of the Belarusian Culture for 2010 - 2015. The programme provides the organization of the annual folklore festival and fair in Semezhava village, financial support for the bearers of the rite, adoption of the school program for studying of the local culture and handicrafts, the development of the local House of Handicrafts as a centre of local traditional culture.
The core objective of the safeguarding activities is direct for locals themselves. This activity has awoked their identity and now they really are proud of their heritage and try to develop not only this element, but other heritage. Now locals became reseach and protect other elements of their heritage: crafts, meals, so on.

B.4. Participation des communautés

Veuillez décrire comment les communautés, groupes et individus ainsi que les organisations non gouvernementales pertinentes ont été impliqués, y compris en termes de rôles liés aux genres, dans la mise à jour du plan de sauvegarde et comment ils seront impliqués dans sa mise en œuvre.

Local inhabitants identify the ceremony "Kalyady Tsars" as their own heritage and are greatly proud of their culture and traditions. They carefully protect it and try to keep to all established rules of its carrying out underlying its sacral value. Bearers of the rite participate in the creation of costumes. They provide the work with local schoolchildren and organised the another group of the "Christmas Tsars", which consists of schoolboys of 12-14 years old. The second year they perform the the ritual together with the group of adult carriers of element.
Locals meet many holiday guests, provide housing and invite them to share a celebratory dinner.
At that day the traditional handicrafts fair is organised by residents. Also they organise the tasting of local dishes.
Great help (especially financial) residents have from local and regional authorities.

B.5. Contexte institutionnel

Veuillez indiquer quelles institutions sont en charge de la gestion locale et de la sauvegarde de l'élément inscrit sur la Liste de sauvegarde urgente, notamment :

  1. le(les) organisme(s) compétent(s) impliqué(s) dans sa gestion et/ou sa sauvegarde ;
  2. la(les) organisation(s) de la communauté ou du groupe concernée(s) par l'élément et sa sauvegarde.

Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Belarus manages the process for safeguarding of the rite ’Kalyady Tsars' and finances a part of measures for safeguarding of it in the framework of the State Programme for Development of the Belarusian Culture for 2010 - 2015.
Local authority, in particular, Kopyl District Department for Culture renders great assistance to the local community of Semezhava in the promotion of the element, dissemination of the information about it, using different sources, including mass media. They are actively engaged in fund raising.
Institute of Culture of Belarus together with the Academy of Sciences provides the studying of the element, organizes workshops for the bearers and local people on the safeguarding of the element.
The local community represented by the group of today's bearers and informers, including the oldest bearers of the rite (Ivan Markevich and Mikalai Skamarocha are among them) takes an active part in the promotion and preservation of the element.
Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava community was established in 2010. Their work is aimed at the organization of the folklore festival and a series of studies on the history of the ritual and the monitoring of its viability.
The Youth ethnographic club is acting under the local House of Handicraft of Semezhava. They are studying the local culture, traditions, handicrafts. Some of them are among the participants of the rite "Kalyady Tsars". Basically they are pupils of the local school and students -- the children of the local people.
Student Ethnography Association together with the Institute of Culture of Belarus organised and carried out the expedition to Semezhava and around, began to research the archives to know more information about the element and the history of the village.

B.6. Participation des communautés a l'etablissement du présent rapport

Décrivez les mesures qui ont été prises pour assurer la plus large participation possible des communautés, des groupes et, le cas échéant, des individus ainsi que des organisations non gouvernementales pertinentes concernés pendant la préparation du présent rapport.

The representatives of the local community and bearers of the rite "Kalyady Tsars" took an active part in the process of preparation of this report. They provided all necessary documents: photos, information about the measures for safeguard, video-record etc. The most active were Georgij Tsimanau (tsar Mamai and the man, who was an initiator of the rebirth of the ritual);
Great help in the preparing of the report was provided by the Kopyl District Department for Culture. They provided a communication with the local community and closely cooperate with the bearers of the rite.

C. Signature au nom de l'état partie

Le rapport doit se terminer par la signature du fonctionnaire compétent pour la signer au nom de l'État, accompagnée de son nom, de son titre et de la date de soumission.

Nom

Natalia Tsarkova and Alla Stashkevich (expert, State Institute for Culture of Belarus)

Titre

Head of the Kopyl District Department For Culture

Date

13-12-2013

Signature

OK

Rapport périodique (USL)

Page de couverture

État partie

Nom de l'État partie

Bélarus

Date du dépôt de l'instrument de ratification, d'acceptation, d'approbation ou d'adhésion

Elle peut être consultée en ligne.

03-02-2005

Élément inscrit sur la Liste de sauvegarde urgente qui fait l'objet du présent rapport

Nom de l'élément

Rite of the Kalyady Tsars (Christmas Tsars)

Inscrit en

2009

Période considérée dans le présent rapport

Veuillez indiquer la période couverte par le présent rapport.

November 2009 -

Autres éléments inscrits sur la Liste de sauvegarde urgente, le cas échéant

Veuillez établir une liste de tous les autres éléments présents sur le territoire de votre pays qui sont inscrits sur la Liste de sauvegarde urgente et indiquer en quelle année ils y ont été inscrits ; pour ce qui est des éléments multinationaux, veuillez indiquer quels autres États sont concernés.

Le rite des Tsars de Kalyady (Tsars de Noël) (2009)

Synthèse du rapport

Veuillez fournir une synthèse du rapport, qui permette au grand public de comprendre l'état actuel de l'élément, mentionne toute incidence positive ou négative de son inscription et fasse état des mesures de sauvegarde mises en œuvre pendant la période considérée et leur possible mise à jour les années suivantes.

The Rite of the “Kalyady Tsars” is an element of the intangible cultural heritage of Belarus inscribed in 2009 on the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding. The rite is celebrated annually on January 13 (New Year’s day for Orthodox Christmas known as “Generous evening” according to the old Julian style calendar) by the villagers of Semezhava (Minsk region, Central Belarus). The ritual is a part of the traditional Belarusian Christmas and New Year’s carnival. The ritual New Year procession involves local people and is led by seven young men in the ritual costumes known as the Kalyady Tsars. The procession proceeds through the village, enacting the traditional play, and receiving gifts and good wishes from the local residents. The Tsars’ visit is the village’s traditional event and is believed to be a good omen and a sign of prosperity.
The inscription of the ritual on the UNESCO Urgent Safeguarding List has enhanced an imaginary interest of mass media and numerous experts to this ceremony. On January 13, 2010, Semezhava village was visited by a large number of journalists, simple visitors and foreigners who wanted to feel the ancient magic of the Generous evening. Local people had never seen so many visitors before. Such attention from press and other people has increased the activity and interest of the local community to its heritage. Real interest appeared among the younger generation of Semezhava residents. Now the ritual received a new impetus to life. With the view to attract investment in the economic and social development of Semezhava, in 2010, the village was included into the Belarusian State Program of the Development of Small Towns and Villages. In 2011, the ritual “Kalyady Tsars” was put forward for an Award of the President of the Republic of Belarus by the Ministry of Culture. On January 8, 2011, an awarding ceremony took place. Besides, some safeguarding measures were provided by the State Programme on Developing of the Belarusian Culture for 2010 - 2015, including the organization of an annual festival of traditional culture and fair in Semezhava village, adoption of school programmes on preservation of cultural heritage, edition of some publications concerning the rite, etc.

Personne à contacter pour la correspondance

Donnez le nom, l'adresse et les coordonnées d'une personne à qui toute correspondance concernant le rapport doit être adressée.

Titre (Mme/M., etc.)

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Adresse

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Numéro de fax

Adresse électronique

Autres informations pertinentes


B. État de l'élément inscrit sur la Liste de sauvegarde urgente

Veuillez vous référer au dossier de candidature ou aux précédents rapports, le cas échéant, pour savoir quand établir un rapport sur l'état actuel de l'élément et ne rendez compte que des changements pertinents survenus depuis la date de son inscription sur la Liste ou depuis le précédent rapport. Les dossiers de candidature, les calendriers spécifiques et les précédents rapports, le cas échéant, sont disponibles à l'adresse suivante : https://ich.unesco.org ou peuvent être demandés au Secrétariat.

L'État partie s'efforce de prêter une attention particulière au rôle du genre et d'assurer la plus large participation possible des communautés, des groupes et, le cas échéant, des individus concernés ainsi que des organisations non gouvernementales pertinentes pendant le processus de préparation de ce rapport ; il lui est demandé au point D ci-dessous de décrire de quelle manière il y est parvenu.

B.1. Fonctions sociales et culturelles

Expliquez les fonctions, les significations sociales et culturelles de l'élément aujourd'hui, au sein et pour ces communautés, les caractéristiques de ses détenteurs et de ses praticiens et décrivez, entre autres, toute catégorie de personnes exerçant un rôle ou des responsabilités spécifiques vis-à-vis de l'élément. Une attention particulière devrait être accordée à tout changement pertinent susceptible d'avoir des répercussions sur le critère d’inscription U.1 (« L’élément est constitutif du patrimoine culturel immatériel tel que défini à l'article 2 de la Convention »).

The Rite of the Kalyady Tsars (Christmas Tsars) is an element of the intangible cultural heritage of Belarus inscribed in 2009 on the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding. The rite is annually celebrated on January 13 (New Year’s Day for Orthodox Christmas known as “Generous evening” according to the old Julian calendar) by the villagers of Semezhava (Minsk region, Central Belarus). The ritual is a part of the traditional Belarusian Christmas and New Year’s carnival. The ritual New Year procession includes local people and is led by seven young men “Kalyady Tsars” in the ritual costumes. The procession proceeds through the village, enacting the traditional play, and receiving gifts and good wishes from the residents. The Tsars’ visit is the village’s traditional event, which is believed to be a good omen and a sign of prosperity in the coming year.
The procession continues into the night. The tsars light torches (a symbol of the fertile fire). The space is shined mysteriously and solemnly at the same time. The holiday is usually ended with the traditional dinner with plentiful meal from local cuisine dishes.
The local people are waiting for the Tsars' coming and very happy to see them. It is a part of the village culture. They actively prepare for the Tsars' coming and discuss all the details of the holiday in advance.
It is interesting (as we can see in the process of two year monitoring the rite) that the local children always follow the Tsars. After the performance is over, children also express best wishes to the owners of the house and receive awards (usually candy).
Today, as before, the ceremony “Kalyady Tsars” is sacred for many residents of the village. The ceremony concludes the period of holidays after the strict Christmas Fast (according to orthodox tradition) and signalizes the beginning of a new year. The villagers believe that it is very important to keep to all elements of the ceremony- its schedule and rules. Today some generations of the performers of the rite live in Semezhava. They closely watch for the proper execution of the ceremony and even criticize today's participants. It is possible to hear from former bearers that when they were young, the ritual used to be executed with bigger religious and emotional fervor. Besides, old villagers remember that in 1960th, there were 5 or 6 groups of “Tsars” in the village, who could visit almost all families during the festive night. The Tsars’ visits are believed to be a sign of prosperity for every family in the coming year.

B.2. Analyse de sa viabilité et risques auxquels il est actuellement exposé

Décrivez le degré actuel de viabilité de l'élément, en particulier la fréquence et l'étendue de sa pratique, la vigueur des modes de transmission traditionnels, la composition démographique des praticiens et des publics, et sa durabilité. Veuillez aussi identifier et décrire les facteurs qui, le cas échéant, constituent une menace pour la pérennité de la transmission et de la représentation de l'élément et indiquez le degré de gravité et de proximité de tels facteurs, en accordant une attention particulière à tout renforcement ou affaiblissement de la viabilité de l'élément suite à son inscription.

The Kalyady Tsars ritual obtained a new impetus to life in 1980s after 20 years of oblivion during the Soviet epoch. But the great interest to it from the side of the community and experts was launched in 1990s. Since then the rite has been annually performed as in former times.
Traditionally, the ritual has been performed only by young men. This fact is very important because it per se enhances the participation of youth in this ceremony. But the problem is that due to the lack of economic prospects the most part of the youth is emigrating from the village. This threat may result in a gap in transmission of the element.
The majority of the participants of the ritual now are senior schoolboys and students who come home for Christmas vacation. The local youth supports all the efforts aiming at safeguarding of the rite, but the majority is interested only in its formal side without getting deeply into the sacral essence of the ritual.
Among serious threats for the viability of the rite is the loss of direct transmission of knowledge and skills in the framework of a family, from father to son, from grandfather to grandson, as before. Today, the role of the transmitters is carried out by the most active former and today's participants of the rite. Georgij Tsimanau, the most active performer among the Tsars, is one of these transmitters. In 2010, during the ritual he played the role of Tsar Mamai. Georgij Tsimanau provides a great work aiming at increasing awareness among all members of the community. He trains the regulations for young participants of the rite.
Following on from the inscription of the Kalyady Tsars rite on the UNESCO Urgent Safeguarding list, many local people started showing a keen interest in the organization of the holiday. Some of them helped to make new costumes (the costumes were made in the local Crafts Centre) for the Tsars, others helped to accommodate numerous guests who came to visit Semezhava at the time of the holiday. According to interviews of the local residents to mass media, they are very proud of their heritage and underline that this ritual is unique, it exists only in their village and nowhere else. Many former residents of the village, who emigrated many years ago, try to come home during the holidays and take part in it.

B.3. Mise en œuvre des mesures de sauvegarde

Veuillez rendre compte des mesures de sauvegardes qui ont été décrites dans le dossier de candidature et dans un précédent rapport, le cas échéant. Décrivez de quelle manière elles ont été mises en œuvre et ont contribué de façon substantielle à la sauvegarde de l'élément au cours de la période considérée, en tenant compte des contraintes externes ou internes telles que des ressources limitées. Incluez en particulier des informations sur les mesures prises afin d'assurer la viabilité de l'élément en permettant à la communauté d'en poursuivre la pratique et la transmission. Fournissez les renseignements suivants en ce qui concerne la mise en œuvre de l’ensemble des mesures de sauvegarde ou du plan de sauvegarde :

B.3.a. Objectifs et résultats

Indiquez quels objectifs principaux ont été atteints et quels résultats concrets ont été obtenus pendant la période considérée.

Following on from the inscription of the Kalyady Tsars rite on the Historical and Cultural Heritage List of the Republic of Belarus, the local community and authorities have proposed a series of measures to help safeguard the element. The measures are intended to increase awareness among the members of the community of the rite's status as a part of local intangible cultural heritage and provide the sustained development of the element. The measures also include the introduction of an annual award for the protection of traditions of Semezhava, which is aimed at expanding the circle of participants and involve as many young people in the activities for preservation and revival of local culture as possible. Several measures concern the dissemination of information about the rite - via the production of a series of programmes on the Kalyady Tsars by the national mass media, the publication of special print and electronic material to help ensure its popularity and continuity, and the creation of appropriate Internet resource.
With the aim to involve new villagers in the participation of the ceremony the problem of safeguarding of the element with the representative of the local community, bearers of the rite, local authorities and experts was discussed. The community took on the tasks of creating new costumes for the Tsars in the local Crafts Centre and compiles a recipe-book of traditional dishes that are usually prepared by the villagers during the Kalyady festival.
The detailed study of the rite history in order to restore the lost elements, learn its relations with the existing cultural landscape and the history of the village was conducted. As the result, the work was done by the experts of the Institute of Art, Ethnography and Folklore of the National Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Belarus.
On the educational front, the Belarusian State University of Culture and Arts planned to introduce a special workshop for the natives of Semezhava. The aim is to develop cultural tourism, to spread information and knowledge about the ritual, thereby helping to embed it within modern forms of culture. In 2011, in collaboration with the Agro-tourism Association of Belarus, the representatives of Semezhava community and cultural institutions of Kopyl district, the workshop was held. The workshop was very productive, because it laid the foundation for long-term cooperation between tourist companies and the local community. Similar workshops are to be held annually on the eve of January 13. In 2012, with the involvement of national and foreign experts the workshop will be held in Kopyl. Meanwhile, the bearers of the "Kalyady Tsars" are to participate in the ceremony in special master class, folklore schools and different meeting and festivals of national and international level. During reporting period it was really realized.
Understanding that in a while village of Semezhava could turn into a fishbowl of a numerous of tourists it was planned to host ( and it was established in a result) a folklore festival on the basis of local tradition where the "Kalyady Tsars" ritual will form the centerpiece.
Finally, a system of annual monitoring to observe the ongoing viability of the element was created as planned.

B.3.b. Activités de sauvegarde

Dressez la liste des principales activités menées au cours de la période considérée pour obtenir ces résultats escomptés. Veuillez décrire les activités en détail en mentionnant leur efficacité et tout problème rencontré dans leur mise en œuvre.

The inscription of the “Kalyady Tsars” rite in November 2009 on the UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding gave a new creative urge to its development and promotion. Many representatives of mass media, including foreigners, visited Semezhava on January 13, 2010 when the ritual was an active. Norito Kunisue, an editor of the well known Japanese newspaper “Asahi Shainbun”, was among foreign journalists. He was extremely impressed by the ceremony and the atmosphere which reigned around. He said that he even had not expected to see such expressive and interesting ritual that remained in its traditional form.
National TV and radio produced a series of programmes on the rite at that period. On September 2010, within the framework of the European Heritage Days, the exhibition of the intangible cultural heritage of Belarus was held at the National Library of Belarus. "Kalyady Tsars" took an active part at the opening ceremony.
Since 2010, the Semezhava village has been included in the State Program of the Development of Small Towns and Villages of Belarus. The programme enables to attract additional investment to the economy of Semezhava, which contributes to its social and cultural development. The programme provides the creation of new job places and the construction of new houses for young families of the village of Semezhava, which will enhance the desire of youth to remain in the village. So, at last there are the real preconditions for the development of this village and for the viability of its heritage and culture.
Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Belarus has put forward the Rite of the Kalyady Tsars for an Award of the President of the Republic of Belarus in 2011. The awarding ceremony took place on January 8, 2011.
Since 2010, the bearers of the ritual have been constantly invited to various festivals and folklore events in Belarus. During the Belarusian Folk Festival "Beraginya" the bearers of the Kalyady Tsars were presented with a UNESCO Certificate by the Chairman of the National Commission of the Republic of Belarus for UNESCO.
The safeguarding of the "Kalyady Tsars" rite is one of the main priorities of the State Programme for the Development of the Belarusian Culture for 2010 - 2015. The programme provides the organization of the annual folklore festival and fair in Semezhava village, financial support of bearers of the rite, adoption of the school programme for studying of the local culture and handicrafts, the development of the local House of Handicrafts as a centre of local traditional culture.
The rite «Кalyady Tsars» took place again in the Semezhava village on January 13, 2011. Together with local residents, hundreds of tourists and journalists took part in the traditional ceremony. On that day, morning bearers, some members of Semezhava community together with municipalities and experts from the Belarusian Institute for Culture organized and held the workshop devoted to the development of cultural tourism in Kopyl area, including the village of Semezhava. Agro-tourism Association of Belarus was invited to participate in the seminar and in the Kalyady procession.
The workshop was very productive, because it laid the foundation for long-term cooperation between tourist companies and the local community. Beginning with 2012, such workshops are to be held on a regular basis.
In 2011, Semezhava community in cooperation with the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Belarus, Kopyl Department of Culture and municipalities established the annual folklore festival in Semezhava and fair of handicrafts. The ritual "Kalyady Tsars" was in the centre of action. In 2010, Semezhava bearers of the rite and local handicrafts united in the Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava community. Their work was aimed at the organization of the festival. To provide the study of the history of Semezhava village and the rite "Kalyady Tsars" the experts from the Academy of Science and the Institute For Culture of Belarus were invited. In 2011, the study was undertaken and the results were discussed at the workshop in Kopyl.
The studies helped to restore some of the lost elements of the ritual, the history of its origin and its relationship with the cultural landscape of Semezhava. For example, the experts managed to determine how the original architecture of Semezhava (so called "pagonnyya dvary" - buildings closed in linear yards) and large space contributed to the creation in the village of the original People's Theatre (Kalyady Tsars).
As a result, by the Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava Community together with the experts from the Institute for Culture of Belarus, a system of annual monitoring to observe the ongoing viability of the element was created.

B.3.c. Participation de communautés, de groupes ou d'individus aux activités de sauvegarde

Veuillez décrire de quelle manière les communautés, les groupes ou, le cas échéant, les individus ainsi que les organisations non gouvernementales pertinentes ont participé de façon effective à l'exécution des mesures de sauvegarde, y compris en termes de rôles du genre. Décrivez le rôle joué par l'organisation ou l'organe chargé de l'exécution (dénomination, informations de référence, etc.) et les ressources humaines qui ont été mises à disposition pour la mise en œuvre des activités de sauvegarde.

Many actions on safeguarding of the element have been initiated by the inhabitants of Semezhava village themselves. They were very glad and proud when learnt from the news about the inscription of the "Kalyady Tsars" on the a UNESCO List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in need of Urgent Safeguarding. During the execution of the ceremony of 2010 and 2011 they met journalists and guests with great hospitality. Now local community are actively searching for investors to support their local cultural traditions and handicrafts and their inclusion in the orbit of cultural tourism.
In 2011 in the morning of the day of the ritual bearers, some members of Semezhava community together with municipalities and experts from Institute for Culture of Belarus organized and held the workshop devoted to the development of cultural tourism in Kopyl area, including village of Semezhava. Agro-tourism Association of Belarus was invited to participate at the seminar and in the Kalyady procession. The workshop was very productive, because it laid the foundation for long-term cooperation between tourist companies and the local community. Beginning with 2012 such workshops are to be held on a regular basis.
In 2011 Semezhava community in cooperation with the Ministry of Culture of Belarus, Kopyl Department of Culture and minicipalities established the annyal folklore festival in Semezhava and fair of handicrafts. The ritual "Kalyady Tsars" was in the centre of action. In 2010 Semezhava bearers of the rite and local handicrafts united in the Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava community. They headed their work on the organization of the festival and invited the experts from the Academy of Science and the Institute For Culture of Belarus to provide the study of the history of the village of Semezhava and the rite "Kalyady Tsars". In 2011, the study was undertaken and the results were discussed at the workshop in Kopyl.
The studies helped to restore some of the lost elements of the ritual, the history of its origin and its relationship with the cultural landscape of Semezhava and the ritual. For example, experts determined how the original architecture of Semezhava (so called "pagonnyya dvary" - buildings closed in linear yards) and large space contributed to the creation in the village of the original People's Theatre (Kalyady Tsars).
Finally, by the Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava Community and the experts from the Institute of Culture of Belarus a system of annyal monitoring to observe the ongoing viability of the element was created.

B.3.d. Calendrier et budget

Indiquez, sous forme de calendrier, les dates de mise en œuvre de chacune des activités et quels fonds ont été utilisés à cette fin, en indiquant dans chaque cas l'origine du financement (sources gouvernementales, contributions en nature des communautés locales, etc.).

Promotion of the element, raising of its visibility and viability:
2009-2010 - constant work with mass media; creation of TV and radio programmes devoted to the rite;
January 2011 - the organization of a workshop on the safeguarding of the ICH with the bearers of the rite and experts from different culture institutions (financial support from Minsk Regional Administration (about 2 000 USD)) and Agro-tourism association and AgroBank of Belarus (about 10 000 USD);
January 2011 - establishing of the folklore festival (about 5 000 USD);
January 8, 2011 – receiving the Award of the President of the Republic of Belarus (bearers of the rite have received 14 mln Br (about 7000 USD));
September 2010 - participation of "Kalyady Tsars" at the exhibition of the ICH in the National Library of the Republic of Belarus (support by the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Belarus (30 mln Br (about 15 000 USD));
Measures on providing the viability of the element:
February 2010 - the Semezhava village has been included in the State Program of the Development of Small Towns and Villages of Belarus. This will enable to attract additional investment in the economy of Semezhava and will enhance its social and cultural development for the special state investments.
March 2010 - the safeguarding of the Kalyady Tsars is one of the main priorities of the State Programme for Development of the Belarusian Culture for 2010 - 2015. The programme provides the organization of the annual folklore festival and fair in Semezhava village, financial support of the bearers of the rite, adoption of the school programme for studying of the local culture and handicrafts, the development of the local House of Handicrafts as a centre of local traditional culture.

B.3.e Efficacité globale des activités de sauvegarde

Procédez à une évaluation globale de l'efficacité des activités menées pour parvenir aux résultats escomptés et de l'utilisation des fonds nécessaires à leur mise en œuvre. Veuillez indiquer de quelles manières les activités ont contribué à l’obtention des résultats et si d'autres activités auraient été mieux adaptées à cette fin. Indiquez aussi si les mêmes résultats auraient pu être obtenus avec de moindres ressources financières, si les ressources humaines disponibles étaient appropriées et si les communautés, groupes et individus concernés auraient pu participer davantage.

The activity described above for promoting and providing of the viability of the element was quite effective. The element became well-known not only among the local community, but also at the national and international level. It has greatly enhanced the self- identification of the local people and awoken the interest to the local traditions among the young people.
The including of Semezhava village in the State Programme of the Development of Small Towns and Villages of Belarus is expected to have great impact on the development. It should enhance the social and cultural development of the village and the position of the young residents.
The safeguarding of the Kalyady Tsars is one of the main priorities of the State Programme for Developing of the Belarusian Culture for 2010 - 2015. The programme provides the organization of the annual folklore festival and fair in Semezhava village, financial support for the bearers of the rite, adoption of the school program for studying of the local culture and handicrafts, the development of the local House of Handicrafts as a centre of local traditional culture.
The Presidential Award to the bearers of the rite will help raise its visibility and force mostly its status.

B.4. Participation des communautés

Veuillez décrire comment les communautés, groupes et individus ainsi que les organisations non gouvernementales pertinentes ont été impliqués, y compris en termes de rôles liés aux genres, dans la mise à jour du plan de sauvegarde et comment ils seront impliqués dans sa mise en œuvre.

Local inhabitants identify the ceremony "Kalyady Tsars" as their own heritage and are greatly proud of their culture and traditions. They carefully protect it and try to keep to all established rules of its carrying out underlying its sacral value.
When some TV persons asked local people to spend the ceremony "Kalyady Tsars" in November so that they could record the programme in advance, local people forbade them to do that and refused to participate, having explained, that it was a big sin and they were not going to infringe the rules. Such behavior provides the respect to traditions and is highly estimated by youth, because it underlines the viability of the rite and its value. This situation was actively discussed in mass-media and by the experts and bearers during the workshop of 2011. Further, the great work for the explanation of this incident was done by the experts and local and district departments of culture. We hope this situation will not repeat in the future.

B.5. Contexte institutionnel

Veuillez indiquer quelles institutions sont en charge de la gestion locale et de la sauvegarde de l'élément inscrit sur la Liste de sauvegarde urgente, notamment :

  1. le(les) organisme(s) compétent(s) impliqué(s) dans sa gestion et/ou sa sauvegarde ;
  2. la(les) organisation(s) de la communauté ou du groupe concernée(s) par l'élément et sa sauvegarde.

Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Belarus manages the process for safeguarding of the rite ’Kalyady Tsars’ planned to finance a part of measures for safeguarding of it in the framework of the State Programme for Development of the Belarusian Culture for 2010 - 2015.
Local authority, in particular, Kopyl District Department for Culture render great assistance to the local community of Semezhava in the promotion of the element, dissemination of the information about it, using different sources, including mass media. They are actively engaged in fund raising. They helped the bearers to make new costumes, gave travel grants for their participation in the opening of an exhibition at the National Library of Belarus and at the different folklore festivals.
State Institute for Culture of Belarus together with the Academy of Sciences provides the studying of the element, organizes workshops for the bearers and local people on the safeguarding of the element.
The local community represented by the group of today's bearers and informers, including the oldest bearers of the rite (Ivan Markevich and Mikalai Skamarocha are among them) takes an active part in the promotion and preservation of the element.
Ethnic Culture Association of Semezhava community was established in 2010. Their work is aimed at the organization of the folklore festival and a series of studies on the history of the ritual and the monitoring of its viability.
The Youth ethnographic club is acting under the local House of Handicraft of Semezhava. They are studying the local culture, traditions, handicrafts. Some of them are among the participants of the rite "Kalyady Tsars". Basically they are pupils of the local school and students -- the children of the local people.

B.6. Participation des communautés a l'etablissement du présent rapport

Décrivez les mesures qui ont été prises pour assurer la plus large participation possible des communautés, des groupes et, le cas échéant, des individus ainsi que des organisations non gouvernementales pertinentes concernés pendant la préparation du présent rapport.

The representatives of the local community and bearers of the rite "Kalyady Tsars" took an active part in the process of preparation of this report. They provided all necessary documents: photos, information about the measures for safeguard, video-record etc. The most active were Georgij Tsimanau (tsar Mamai and the man, who was an initiator of the rebirth of the ritual); Mikalai Skamarocha, Ivan Markevich -- the main informers. They are the oldest men of the village and participated in the Christmas procession of the tsars in early 20th century, before World War II.
Great help in the preparing of the report was provided by the Kopyl District Department for Culture. They provide a communication with the local community and closely cooperate with the bearers of the rite.

C. Signature au nom de l'état partie

Le rapport doit se terminer par la signature du fonctionnaire compétent pour la signer au nom de l'État, accompagnée de son nom, de son titre et de la date de soumission.

Nom

Prepared by Natalia Tsarkova, Head of the Kopyl District Department For Culture and Alla Stashkevich, expert, State Institute for Culture of Belarus

Titre

Head of the Kopyl District Department For Culture.

Date

28-08-2011

Signature


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