Les pratiques traditionnelles mongoles de vénération de sites sacrés

    

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Inscrit en 2017 (12.COM) sur la Liste du patrimoine immatériel nécessitant une sauvegarde urgente

© 2016 by Research and Information Center for sacred sites, Mongolia

Les pratiques mongoles de vénération des sites sacrés se sont développées dans l’espace culturel qui constitue un berceau du style de vie nomade et se caractérise par une communion avec la nature et l’environnement. Selon le shamanisme ancien, ces pratiques sont fondées sur la croyance en l’existence de divinités invisibles du ciel, de la terre, des montagnes et de l’ensemble des éléments naturels de l’environnement. Les anciens enseignent aux jeunes comment participer à la cérémonie et l’attitude à y adopter. Les cérémonies de vénération font naître un sentiment de communauté et de solidarité et sensibilisent à l’interdépendance entre les êtres humains et l’environnement. Sous le régime communiste en Mongolie, la vénération des sites sacrés était l’une des nombreuses pratiques interdites par les autorités, ce qui a fortement menacé sa viabilité. Malgré les initiatives des pouvoirs publics et des communautés pour faire revivre la tradition, il reste de nombreux obstacles à franchir, notamment l’accélération de la mondialisation et de l’urbanisation et le départ des gardiens de troupeaux des régions des sites sacrés pour les villes, la réduction drastique du nombre de praticiens et de maîtres possédant les connaissances nécessaires et le développement de l’exploitation minière. Néanmoins, les populations locales sont enthousiastes à l’idée de faire revivre la tradition et de transmettre les connaissances correspondantes. Ainsi, ces dernières années, de nombreux temples ont été restaurés et des conditions favorables au déroulement des pratiques de vénération ont été instaurées localement.

Rapport périodique

Nom de l'État partie

Mongolie

2005-06-29

Nom de l'élément

Mongolian traditional practices of worshipping the sacred sites

Inscrit en

2013

État(s) soumissionnaire(s)

Mongolie

01-01-2018 - 31-12-2021

La calligraphie mongole (2011)
La calligraphie mongole (2013)
La danse traditionnelle Tsam de Mongolie (2011)
La musique traditionnelle pour flûte tsuur (2009)
La technique d’interprétation du chant long des joueurs de flûte limbe – la respiration circulaire (2011)
Le Biyelgee mongol, danse populaire traditionnelle mongole (2009)
Le chant de l’épopée mongole de Jangar (2011)
Le rituel pour amadouer les chamelles (2015)
Le rituel pour amadouer les chamelons (2011)
Le Tuuli mongol, épopée mongole (2009)
Les pratiques traditionnelles mongoles de vénération de sites sacrés (2011)

The “Mongolian traditional practices of worshipping the sacred sites” was inscribed on the on the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding of UNESCO 2003 Convention for the Safeguarding of the Intangible Cultural Heritage, in 2017. Accordingly, Mongolia is taking step-by-step measures to revive the “Mongolian traditional practices of worshiping the sacred sites”, to strengthen its capacity and to safeguard at the national and local levels. The protection activities included in the nomination documents were carried out as planned, including research, training, advocacy, and the creation of a legal environment. It also covered participation of the local authorities, local people, heritage practitioners, their descendants, folk artists, cultural activists, experts and researchers from governmental and non-governmental organizations. In order to preserve and promote sacred sites nationwide, related resolutions have been issued and a legal environment has been created.
One of the major activities related to the ongoing work is the UNESCO project “Supporting Sustainable Development by Safeguarding Mongolian traditional practices and rituals of worshipping the sacred sites” (2019-2021) aimed at reviving the heritage. The project was initiated by the UNESCO-accredited NGO - “Natural and Cultural Heritage Protection Fund”. Implemented in close collaboration with the Government Implementing Agency, the Department of Culture and Arts; National Center for Cultural Heritage; related NGOs; social media organizations; communities; and heritage practitioners. With aim to contribute to the strengthening of the sustainability of the heritage element the project launched the “Let's Respect our Motherland and Heritage” campaign to establish the ability to study, document, and promote heritage sites, increase public awareness, train trainers, and implemented series of activities reaching certain progress.
Since the 1990s, the Government of Mongolia has been actively pursuing a policy of reviving and promoting national culture, customs and traditions. Although Mongolian people put much effort in reviving the sacred sites, and traditional customs, there are still some negative consequences. Mongolia's urbanization, and rural-urban migration have reduced the scope of traditional cultural spaces. In addition, due to the country’s rich sources of minerals such as coal, gold, and copper, numbers of mining companies are being operating in the country. As a result, large areas of Mongolia have exploration and mining licenses, which continue to threaten traditional customs and traditions. In addition, too many people participate in sacred sites' worshipping rituals, which has a negative impact on the environment. Activities in the coming years will include support to ensure that rituals are properly practiced, reducing movement from rural to urban areas, slowing migration, and mitigating risk-affected sites at the mining areas.

Titre (Mme/M., etc.)

Ms

Nom de famille

Tserendorj

Prénom

Tsolmon

Institution/fonction

Coordination Officer for Policy Implementation of Intangible Cultural Heritage Department of Cultural Heritage Ministry of Culture

Adresse

Ministry of Culture of Mongolia, Sukhbaatar district, 7th sub-district, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia

Numéro de téléphone

+976 51-265617 312735; +976 99057308

Adresse électronique

tsolmon@moc.gov.mn

Autres informations pertinentes

The worshipping of the sacred sites first originated with shamanism and was later enriched by Buddhist compassion. From the 1930s onward until the 1990s, this beautiful tradition was almost forgotten and threatened with extinction due to the communist ideology's policy of denying and suppressing as an "old", "outdated" tradition and "religious heresies".
This ritual is a complex religious and cultural heritage of Mongolia and plays an important role in the spiritual, social, cultural, and artistic life. These include:
1. It is important to ensure unity. Sacred sites worshipping practices are activities in which people participate voluntarily. During the worshipping, the local people share the traditions, teach children and young people how to worship the sacred sites, communities participate actively in the preparations for the event voluntarily and sincerely. In this sense, it is important by promoting to the local people the need to preserve the natural and cultural heritage, to unite for the good of their homeland, to respect each other, to work, and to live together.
2. It plays an important role in setting the norms of humane social relations. This tradition plays a valuable role in regulating social relations, such as human to nature, humans to animals, and human to human relations. This ritual is manifested in the fact that people see nature as an entity that has its' spirits and respects it by bringing sacrifices to them and entrusting their livelihood to nature, thus creating a positive relationship between humans and nature.
Mongolians also believe that animals and birds have the same right to live in peace as humans do, and the tradition teaches to have compassionate relationships to not do the unjust killing of animals and loot their pastures.
During the rituals of worshipping of the sacred sites, people refrain from bad deeds, such as the use of alcohol, causing unrest, quarreling, and harming the land and nature, which strengthens humane and compassionate relations between people.
This ritual, transmitted and inherited by Mongolians, plays an important role in cultivating and enriching the idea of protecting nature and wildlife, and preserving valuable cultural heritage. The Traditional worshipping of the sacred sites has evolved over the centuries and has found its present form.

Worshipping of the sacred sites is a widespread heritage in all provinces of Mongolia. Today, the tradition has been revived and has ability survive further in the future. Rituals are traditionally organized by local people, and the frequency of rituals varies according to tradition. State-level activities are performed once every five years, while provinces and soum (administration unit) level rituals are performed once every three years. Herders, on the other hand, perform their rituals mainly in spring and autumn each year. Worshipping activities are organized free and people of all ages, regardless of age, gender, or religion can participate freely and voluntarily in the worshipping rituals, so that the tradition could developed and maintained easily, with the support of the general public. However, there are still some negative factors affecting it.
Current threats to he sacred sites include mining activities, population dispersal, urbanization, urban migration, overgrazing due to overpopulation of the domestic animals, and climate change. The most serious of these is mining.
In order to intensively reduce these negative impacts on heritage, a detailed assessment and analysis of these threats and risks that directly and indirectly affect the natural and cultural environment of the sacred area will be conducted, and the scope and frequency of impacts will be determined. There is a need for the dedicated policy to be developed and implemented.

The safeguarding activities included in the nomination documents are planned to conduct research, organize training sessions, conduct publicity, and create a legal environment. Based on the safeguarding plan outlined in the nomination materials, the Government of Mongolia, in cooperation with relevant governmental and non-governmental organizations, heritage practitioners and communities, developed and implemented a national action plan. The action plan to ensure viability of the heritage element (2018-2021) consists of a wide range of activities aimed at intensifying research, raising awareness, improving the policy and legal environment, and building capacity.
During this periodic reporting period, the following objectives were set to protect the “Mongolian traditional practice of worshiping the sacred sites” in 2018-2021. These include:
- Improving the legal environment for safeguarding the heritage;
- Establish a specialized registry and database of heritage practitioners;
- Development of heritage research;
- Promoting heritage, organizing trainings and meetings;
- Identify effective methods of formal and non-formal education and train students;
- Promite and support the heritage practitioners.
Results:
- Within the framework of improving the legal environment for heritage protection, the Government of Mongolia has revised the Law on Culture and the Law on Protection of Cultural Heritage.
- Within the framework of creating a specialized registration and information database of heritage practitioners, software for registration and information of sacred places (http://tahilga.mongoluv.mn) was created and information on 810 sacred sites, and heritage practitioners from 20 administrative units of 20 provinces and the capital city was included.
- The UNESCO project “Supporting Sustainable Development by reviving the tradition of worshiping sacred sites in Mongolia” (2018-2022) implemented at a time when the specifics of the ritual rituals are fading and becoming commonplace, and there is a shortage of senior heritage practitioners who know and manage the ritual rituals, has achieved the following positive results. The project plays an important role in increasing the social and cultural significance of the heritage among the community and the inheriting community. Since the start of the project, there has been an increase in awareness among young people, and there has been an increase in voluntary participation in rituals, awareness of their importance, value, and revival of old traditions. Local authorities, cultural workers and citizens' representatives played a key role in conducting research and advocacy work in four regions of Mongolia.
- In order to protect sacred places, governmental and non-governmental organizations created scientific and educational TV programs and broadcasted them to the general public.

Challenges:
- It is common for local government representatives (governor's offices, cultural centers, and local monasteries) to perform the worshiping of sacred sites. Although the administration makes decisions and supports the conducting of worshiping rituals, and it becomes a stable process, on the other hand, there is a risk that the ritual will be standardized and the specifics of the tradition will be blurred. This is evidenced by the results of the research conducted within the framework of the project and the information collected in the registry of the information database (http://tahilga.mongoluv.mn).

The Law on Protection of Cultural Heritage defines the classification of cultural heritage in detail, and in articles 5.1.9., 5.1.10. for the first time, “sacred places” and “historical monuments” are defined as cultural heritage in the category of “Immovable historical and cultural monuments”.
During the reporting period, the following measures were implemented.

1. Within the framework of improving the legal environment and heritage protection system:

In July 2021, the Government of Mongolia approved a resolution to amend the Law on Protection of Cultural Heritage, which includes the following provisions related to the protection of intangible cultural heritage. These include:
Newly added provisions:
- 14.1.10. Protect and restore the authenticity and integrity of historical and cultural immovable monuments listed in the World Heritage Tentative List and the World Heritage List, protect and strengthen the viability of intangible cultural heritage listed in the UNESCO Representative List and List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding to include measures in the annual state budget and implement them; ”
- 14.1.17. To take measures to register immovable historical and cultural monuments in the World Heritage Tentative List and the World Heritage List, and to register intangible cultural heritage in the UNESCO Representative List and List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding; ”
Amended provisions:
- 8.4. Intangible cultural heritage shall be registered in the National Representative List of Intangible Cultural Heritage and in the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding, taking into account its historical, cultural, artistic, aesthetic and scientific value and importance.
- 27.3. Permission to conduct paleontological, archeological exploration, excavation and intangible cultural heritage research in the territory of Mongolia shall be issued by the Government member in charge of cultural affairs based on the proposal of the Professional Council under the state central administrative body in charge of cultural affairs.

The above amendments will take effect on January 1, 2022.
In addition, Mongolia's long-term development policy “Vision - 2050” states “1.4.3. To restore the names of renamed places based on the research materials, and restore the traditional rituals related to sacred sites and places; 1.5.9. To identify sacred mountains and water areas, to research written material, history and legends, related works of art and artifacts that used at the sacred sites”.
The Government of Mongolia has established the administration office under the Ministry of Culture to manage the preservation and protection of the World Heritage Site - The Great Burkhan Khaldun Mountain and its surrounding sacred landscape in 2020. The Administration office started operating from the April 2020.
Following the Presidential Decree No. 81 of 2021 the Noyon-Uul Mountain was declared as a state sacred mountain that preserves the cultural heritage of the Xiongnu Empire, and the protection boundaries were established.
The “Geographical Name Council” was established in 2019 under the Department of Land Management, Geodesy and Cartography. The council has sub-councils in 21 provinces, 9 districts and 330 soums and based on the old maps, research and suggestions of local sub-councils, the names of the places being restored given an accurate Mongolian name and introduced to the public. Representatives of the Ministry of Culture are members of the board and plan to work closely with the council in research, training and advocacy to protect the heritage.
From 2020, the Minister of Culture of Mongolia will sign annual agreements with the governors of 21 provinces and the capital city on the protection of cultural heritage, which will undoubtedly contribute to increasing the role and participation of local governments in the protection of cultural heritage.
In 2021, the Government of Mongolia decided to establish Culture Departments in the provinces. Prior to that, the province governor's office had a “Department of Education and Culture” and a small number of people were in charge of cultural issues. It is hoped that the change will improve the safeguarding of intangible cultural heritage, the quality and access to cultural services, and the implementation of state cultural policy at the local level.
2. In the field of registration and research:
- In the framework of the UNESCO project implemented in 2019-2021, the work on identifying local sacred sites, rituals, their heritage practitioners and individuals, and creating a primary registration database has been underway since 2010. In order to increase the database, in 2019, research expeditions were successfully organized in four regions.
- Based on the information collected in the framework of the survey, the above-mentioned relevant organizations and practitioners together compiled and disseminated information on 810 sacred places, mountains and practitioners of the "Mongolian traditional practice of worshiping sacred sites" to the national database. This is the first time in Mongolia that the registration of a single heritage species has been carried out in a unified and electronic manner throughout the country. These records are unique in that they contain both tangible and intangible cultural heritage.
3. Training and advertising:
- In order to strengthen the knowledge and capacity of local people, trainees and youth, a handbook (1000 copies) and a video presentation were developed and distributed to all soums of 21 provinces for local heritage practitioners and communities.
- In 2019, a two-day national workshop on capacity building was organized for community members, community representatives and professionals.
- With the support of the trainers who participated in the national seminar, the province Governor's Office organized local seminars in 21 provinces in 2019 in accordance with the guidelines. As a result of these workshops, a national network of more than 400 local interns and cultural workers from cultural centers has been established to revive and disseminate the traditions of worship.
4. In support of heritage practitioners:
- Between October 2019 and June 2021, the contest “Let's cherish the lands of our ancestors” was announced and awarded among the heritage practitioners.
5. challenges encountered:
- Due to the global epidemic of COVID-19, it was difficult to establish a national quarantine and perform some state and local performances. For example, limiting the number of participants in worshiping performances.

- Prior to 1990, worshipped sites remained sacred. There was an unwritten law that forbade the cutting of trees from these sacred places of worship, and the extermination of animals. Ritual taboos have been enforced by local people, therefore protected their places of worship. However, since the 1990s, the sacred sites were hit hard by the mining of resources. Local people and communities started protesting against mining activities, an example of this is the fact that Noyon-Uul mountain was liberated from mining and became a state sacred mountain in 2021 as a result of the “Noyon-Uul Rescue Movement” struggle. The public, the people, civil society movements, researchers, representatives of governmental and non-governmental organizations, and local government organizations have been actively involved in removing mining license from the Noyon-Uul and making it a state sacred mountain.
- In order to protect sacred sites nationwide, related resolutions and decisions have been issued and formalized. For example, the Dornod Province's Citizens' Representatives Khural passed Resolution No. 06 in 2017 to take 12 sacred areas under legal protection, not to issue mining licenses in the region, and not to mine sand and gravel in the Kherlen, Onon, Ulz and Galin river basins. It became a good practice of creation of the legal environment. Local governments are also involved in public awareness campaigns, such as tree planting, publications on the environmental protection brochures and books, creation of the series of TV contents, and photo contests among children.
- In addition, the UNESCO-funded project, which started in 2018, has had a significant impact on participation of the communities in the safeguarding and protection of cultural heritage. Representatives of ethnic groups and local people who worship sacred mountains and sites were invited to participate in national and local seminars and trainings. Organized training seminars in 21 provinces and localities, involving citizens of all soums and their heritage practitioners and successors. These trained heritage practitioners are active in their respective soums and communities. The project implementers organized a national campaign “Let's cherish our motherland and heritage” with the main goal of conveying the project's goals and ideas among those who participate in the worshipping and protection practices of the sacred sites and transmitted the tradition from their ancestors. The research expedition were conducted at four regions. Local people actively participated in the survey. Communities and heritage practitioners played an important role in interviewing, monitoring, evaluating, documenting, and filming. During the expedition, a project brochure, “Urag Udam (Ancestry)" newspaper and other videos and promotional materials were distributed to the community, heritage practitioners, government officials and NGOs. One of the major activities of the project was to create a national information database of sacred sites in Mongolia. The most effective way to involve the public was to organize a national competition for best practices to revive and promote worshipping traditions and customs. It involved a wide range of local people in all activities of the project.

- In 2017, 12 sacred sites were taken under legal protection by the 6th resolution of the Citizens' Representatives Khural of Dornod province.
- In 2018-2022, the UNESCO-funded project “Supporting sustainable environmental and cultural development in Mongolia through the revival and transmission of the Traditional practices of worshipping the sacred sites" is being implemented.
- In 2018-2020, the NGO "Natural and Cultural Heritage Protection Foundation" launched the two-year “Let's cherish the lands of our descedants” campaign.
- In October 2019, the national level conference "Mongolian People's Campaign" was organized.
- In order to create a registration and information database, build the capacity of registration staff, and organize the registration process, in 2019, a national training on “Restoration of Mongolian customs and rituals of worshipping the sacred sites” was organized and trained more than 300 registration workers.
- In April 2020, the Administration office for the World Heritage - Burkhan Khaldun Mountain and its surrounding sacred landscape began operate to implement the management of the protection and conservation of the site.
- In September and October 2020, the NGO "Natural and Cultural Heritage Foundation" in cooperation with the "Eco-Asia" Institute and the "Urag, Udam (Ancestors)" Association, conducted a research and promotion tour in the Gobi and Eastern regions.
- In 2021, 5 guide books on protected areas in the Western, Eastern, Gobi and Khangai regions of Mongolia were created and distributed to general public.
- In June-November 2021, the NGO "Natural and Cultural Heritage Foundation" organized the Best Practice Competition in cooperation with the Government Implementing Agency - Department of Culture and Arts, National Center for Cultural Heritage, Mongolian National Chamber of Commerce and Industry and Culture and Arts Departments of the provinces and the capital city.
- Presidential Decree No. 81 of 2021 established the Noyon-Uul Mountain as a state sacred mountain preserving the culture of the Hunnu Dynasty, and established a protective border zone.

According to the Law on Protection of Cultural Heritage, approved by the Parliament of Mongolia in 2014, Article 41 states "Activities for the protection of cultural heritage shall be financed by the following resources: state budgets; local budgets; assistance, donations and funds provided by Mongolian and foreign citizens, as well as legal entities and international organizations; other resources"; Article 13.1.13. "to allocate funds in the state annual budget for the activities to promote, transmit, preserve and protect the cultural properties inscribed on the World Heritage List and submit nomination proposals of cultural heritage for the World Heritage List"; Article 15.1.1. "to monitor and approve the necessary budget to develop plans and programmes for implementation, as well as provide implementation of the legislation concerning the protection of cultural heritage within their territory”; Article 16.1.12. Powers of the Governors of provinces and the capital city is "to identify practitioners of intangible cultural heritage, as well as provide publicity and assistance and organize activities of transmission". These articles allow the local budget to be spend on the protection of intangible cultural heritage.
1. The activities of worshiping the sacred sites are organized annually by the administrative units, local councils, local citizens and business entities with the joint financial support. An average of 990 worshipping activities are performed annually in Mongolia, costing approximately 700,000 MNT per activity. The financial support provided as following:
from the State budget -150,000,000 MNT,
from individuals - 400,000,000 MNT,
from NGOs - 150,000,000 MNT,
Total: 693,000,000 ?
2. $ 98,000 was spent in the framework of the UNESCO-funded project "Supporting sustainable environmental and cultural development in Mongolia through the revival and transmission of the Traditional practices of worshipping the sacred sites".
A total of $ 341,157 was spent during the reporting period.

As a result of amendments to the Law on the Protection of Mongolia's Cultural Heritage in 2014, and the tireless struggle of the people, Noyon-Uul Mountain was designated as a state sacred mountain and protected. In Dornod province, 12 sacred sites were taken under the province protection.
In 2018-2021, the UNESCO-funded project “Supporting sustainable environmental and cultural development in Mongolia through the revival and transmission of the Traditional practices of worshipping the sacred sites" has had certain results in safeguarding the traditional practices of worshipping the sacred sites and in protection of the sacred sites. The survey of sacred sites, practices, and heritage practitioners was conducted in 2019. The research team worked in four regions. A total of 430 sacred sites were visited, 118 sacred sites were documented, and 86 people were interviewed. In addition, more than 300 hours of audio and video recordings and about 5,000 photographs were made. The materials collected as a result of these surveys were classified based on the characteristics of sacred sites, practices, and the relevant communities, and the final results of the survey were compiled into a database. Four guidebooks were developed on four regional surveys and distributed throughout the country.
Based on the results of the four regional research expeditions, the Governmental Implementing Agency - Department of Culture and Arts, the National Center for Cultural Heritage and the NGO "Natural and Cultural Heritage Foundation" jointly organized the two-days seminar in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia on October 23, 24, 2019, to strengthen the implementation of the UNESCO project. 70 participants were from government and non-government organizations, Governing Administrations of 21 provinces, representatives of relevant communities and members of the Organizing Committee. The national workshop was an important step in expanding the scope of the project, intensifying the process, and rewarding local people and trainers. During the workshop, information, methodologies and recommendations such as introductory manuals, recommendations and introductory videos were introduced and distributed to the participants.
The project implementing NGO "Foundation for the Protection of Natural and Cultural Heritage", in partnership with the "Urag, Udam, Ulamjlal (Ancestors, Descendants and Traditions)" Association, organized a competition for the best practices under the motto “Let's cherish our ancestors' sacred sites and places of worship”, between October 2019 and June 2021, a total of 20 heritage practitioners were selected and awarded.
A national seminar was organized in October 2019 with the participation of the Departments of Culture and Arts of the Governor's Offices of the provinces. The trainings were conducted taking into account province trainers, the cultural space, conditions and the specifics of the local area. As a result of these local workshops, about 400 local cultural center managers and cultural workers gained knowledge and experience on how to properly organize rituals and how to create and maintain a local database.
The Project Implementer, the "Foundation for the Protection of Natural and Cultural Heritage", and the National Center for Cultural Heritage worked together to establish a national registration and information database of sacred sites, mountain worship customs, and heritage bearing communities. Detailed instructions on the use of the registration and information system have been developed and distributed to national and local workshop participants and the State information and registration database. As of October 31, 2021, a total of 810 sacred sites, and heritage practitioners, have been registered in the State registration and information database.
-Based on the research and data collected as a result of the UNESCO- funded project, a series of books, programs and documentaries have been produced in the Gobi, Khangai, Western and Eastern regions to increase public awareness, protect and promote sacred sites and practices.

Mongolia's long-term development policy document VISION -2050, Action Plan of the Government of Mongolia, Guidelines for the Development of Mongolia in 2021-2025, Guidelines for Improving the Legislation of Mongolia until 2024, Strategy of the Ministry of Culture for 2021-2024 includes identification, registration, study of intangible cultural heritage, registration, database creation, transmission, dissemination, organization of activities to promote and protect heritage practitioners, study and identify intangible cultural heritage practitioners, and acquire talents and traditional knowledge, to support the transmission of the legacy to future generations, to create a system to support and reward the groups, communities and individuals who created the discipleship training, and to provide planning. In order to improve the legislation, a working group has been established to submit an independent law on “Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage” to the State Great Hural in 2023, and a relevant study has been established.
The article 1.4.3. of “Vision-2050 states ”To restore the names of renamed places based on the research materials, and restore the traditional rituals related to sacred sites and places; 1.5.9. To identify sacred mountains and water areas, to research written material, history and legends, related works of art and artifacts that used at the sacred sites”. This will make a real contribution to the preservation and protection of this heritage in the future.

The revised plan is in line with the above policy documents. The purpose of the plan is:
Updating the registration and documentation of the “Mongolian traditional practice of worshiping sacred sites”, transmitting it through formal and informal training, study, promotion, strengthening its viability, raising public awareness, and providing preparation for transferring from the List of Intangible Cultural Heritage in Need of Urgent Safeguarding to the List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.
a) The purpose of the updated plan is to:
To conduct basic researches on sacred sites worshipping, organize apprenticeship training, strengthen viability, raise public awareness, and continue recording and documenting in between 2022 and 2025.
The objectives of the updated plan are:
- Researches
- Training
- Support and assistance
- Registration and documentation
b) Expected results:
- Risk areas will be researched and protected.
- Transmission of sacred sites worship practices and public awareness increased. Increased public awareness will improve the safeguarding of the heritage.
- Registration and research will be updated regularly.
- The viability of the heritage will be strengthened.
- The number of inherited students will increase and the skill level will increase.
- Progress will be made in heritage research.
- An optimal safeguarding plan will be developed based on the results of the inspection and inventory.
- As a result of the above activities, it will be possible to transfer the heritage from the List of the Cultural Heritage in Need of the Urgent Safeguarding to the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.

In order to achieve the desired results, the following activities will be organized:
Researches:
- Conduct surveillance in risky areas in the Eastern and Gobi regions of Mongolia and determine further measures to be implemented. These include: Khentii, Dornod, Sukhbaatar and Dornogovi provinces in the Eastern region, and Umnugovi, Dundgovi, Gobi-Altai and Govisumber provinces in the Gobi region. Note: In 2026-2029, research will continue in the Khangai and Western regions.
- In collaboration with the National General Archives, the National Library, and Gandan Tegchinlen Monastery, historical documents, sources, and scriptures related to the sacred sites will be researched and put into scientific research circulation.
Training:
- Organize campaigns and trainings to protect the environment and increase public awareness through sacred sites worshipping practices. Scope: heritage practitioners, relevant government agencies and NGOs.
Support and assistance:
- Organize joint activities with NGOs to clean all Mongolian mountains and ovoos.
- Create a legal environment for exemption from mining licenses by registering sacred sites affected by mining, make necessary legal amendments and improve them;
Registration and documentation:
- Document audio and video recordings of ethnically specific rituals and practices in sacred.
Monitoring:
- - In 2022-2025, the monitoring of the heritage “Mongolian Traditional practices of worshipping the sacred sites” will be done by comparing it with the annual safeguarding and protection activities, especially the quality of apprenticeship and the number of heritage practitioners, the viability of the heritage shall be determined and reflected in future conservation and protection measures.

1. Conduct surveillance in risky areas in the Eastern and Gobi regions of Mongolia and determine further measures to be implemented in 2022-2024. Expected budget to be spent 15000$
2. Organize campaigns and trainings to protect the environment and increase public awareness through sacred sites worshipping practices. 2022-2024. Expected budget to be spent 10000$.
3. Organize joint activities with NGOs to clean all Mongolian mountains and Ovoos in 2022-2025. Expected budget to be spent 15000$.
4. Create a legal environment for exemption from mining licenses by registering sacred sites affected by mining, make necessary legal amendments, and improve them in 2022-2025. Expected budget to be spent 2000$.
5. Document audio and video recordings of ethnically specific rituals and practices in sacred in 2022-2025. Expected budget to be spent 5000$.
6. Promotion and support for the heritage practitioners in 2022-2025. Expected budget to be spent 10000$.
7. In collaboration with the National Archives, the National Library, and Gandan Tegchinlen Monastery, historical documents, sources, and scriptures related to the Sacred Land will be researched and used in academic research in 2023.
8. Monitoring in 2022-2025. Expected budget to be spent 5000$.
A total budget to be spent in next four years is 70 000$.

The revised action plan was developed by the Ministry of Culture, the National Center for Cultural Heritage, the Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO, the Department of Culture and Arts of the Government Implementation Agency, the World Heritage-Burkhan Khaldun Mountain and the surrounding sacred landscape administration office, senior and young heritage practitioners, and relevant government officials, including opinions of organizations, scholars, in accordance with the polici documents such as the “National Program for the Protection of Intangible Cultural Heritage” implemented by the Government of Mongolia and “Law on Protection of Cultural Heritage”, long-term development policy document of Mongolia VISION -2050, the Action Plan of the Government of Mongolia, the Guidelines for the Development of Mongolia for 2021-2025, the Guidelines for Improving the Legislation of Mongolia until 2024, and the Strategic Plan for 2021-2024 of the Ministry of Culture.
The Ministry of Culture will create a favorable legal environment, formulate policies, allocate and monitor the necessary budgets in the state budget, and provide guidance and methodologies for the implementation of national activities by the Government of Mongolia. The NCCH will work with trainers and heritage practitioners in 21 provinces and 9 districts to organize conservation and protection activities, as well as national inventory, festivals and academic conferences.
The activities included in the plan shall be organized in consultation and jointly with the organizations, other governmental and non-governmental organizations, researchers and the public whose functions are specified in the Law on Cultural Heritage Protection.
Heritage practitioners are responsible for disseminating, promoting, and inheriting nationally and internationally, and are actively involved in other conservation plans.

a. Ministry of Culture, Mongolia
Address: Ministry of Culture of Mongolia, Sukhbaatar district, 7th sub-district, Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.

Byambasuren DAVAATSEREN
Director of Cultural Heritage Department
Phone: + 976- 51-265609
Fax: 976-
Email: davaatseren@moc.gov.mn
Web:moc.gov.mn
Email: info@moc.gov.mn
Tserendorj TSOLMON
Coordination Officer for Policy Implementation of Intangible Cultural Heritage
Phone: + 976- 51-265617
Fax: 976-
Email: tsolmon@moc.gov.mn
Phone: + 976- 99057308

National Center for Cultural Heritage
Address: Mongolia, Ulaanbaatar, Khan-Uul district, 21st khoroo, Buyant Ukhaa 2 district,
Galbadrakh ENKHBAT
Director National Cultural Heritage Center
Phone: + 976-99168200
+ 976- 70110877
Fax: 976-11-312735
Email: enkhbatcch@gmail.com info@ncch.gov.mn
Web: http://ncch.gov.mm/

Arslan SARUUL
Specialist in charge of World Heritage Sites, Department for Protection and Rescue of Cultural Heritage in Emergency Situation in National Center for Cultural Heritage
Phone: + 976- 99030405
Email: saku_tuntic@yahoo.com

Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO

Khoskhuu IDER
Programme Specialist for Culture
Phone: + 976-70105652
+ 976-95959542
Fax: 976-11-322612
Email: kh.ider@unesco.mn

“Foundation for the Protection of Natural and Cultural Heritage” NGO
Director N.Urtnasan
Tel: + 976-99100184
E-mail: n.urtnasan@gmail.com

By the order of the Minister of Culture of Mongolia No. A / 73 of 2021 “On the establishment of a working group”, a working group was established to develop and prepare the “Periodic Report on Cultural Heritage in Need of the Urgent Safguarding”. These include representatives from the Ministry of Culture, the Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO, the Government Implementing Agency for Culture and Arts, and the National Center for Cultural Heritage, World Heritage - Burkhan Khaldun Mountain and the surrounding sacred landscape administration office, the Mongolian National Commission for UNESCO and related reserachers.

During the preparation of this periodic report, the working group has done 4 times meetings for collecting data and information from practitioners and cultural organizations in 21 provinces and 9 districts of Ulaanbaatar and for analyzing the gathered data in accordance with the questionnaires of periodic reporting form, and for elaborating the updated safeguarding plan for this heritage element.
Heritage practitioners are responsible for disseminating, promoting the cultural heritage element nationally and internationally.

The NGO "Foundation for the Protection of Natural and Cultural Heritage", the "Mongolian Center for Sacred Sacred Research and Information", the "Ancestors and Descendants" association, and the working team for the UNESCO-funded project “Supporting sustainable environmental and cultural development in Mongolia through the revival and transmission of the Traditional practices of worshipping the sacred sites" personally participated in the preparation of this report.

Nom

NOMIN Chinbat

Titre

Minister of Culture, Mongolia

Date

10-12-2021

Signature

NOMIN Chinbat
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